Ancestry DNA – Results and explanation
Who are you? Discover it with your ancestry results
Ancestry DNA – Results on MyTellmeGen
Ancestry genetic testing provides information about the possible origin of our ancestors, by comparing our genetic material with reference populations that have a known geographical origin and ethnicity.
Knowing our origins has always intrigued us, whether at an individual level, with genealogical studies, or as a species, with different branches of science focused on this issue. In recent years, thanks to the scientific and technical advances that allow us to “look” into the genetic material, we have been able to answer many questions by reconstructing the history of our species: we know our origins, 200,000 years ago, in the African continent; we have unraveled the footprints of the journey that the modern human being undertook out of Africa that led us to populate all the continents; and, we understand the most recent demographic events, which continue to this day.
The sum of all these events is what configures the genetic composition of current populations, making each one to present distinctive characteristics. Despite the great knowledge we currently have on this issue, the study of our origins is a continuous and cumulative process, as the number of analyzed populations increases, our knowledge about past events will also increase.
How do we determine your ancestry results?
To determine your ancestry, at tellmeGen we use a relevant fraction of the data obtained in your genotyping corresponding to the autosomal DNA, which contains your genetic inheritance from both paternal and maternal sides. Once identified, this portion of your genetic variation is compared to over 2,700 individuals distributed in 48 ethnic groups. The database we use has been generated from public databases of the human variability: 1000 Genomes Project (http://www.internationalgenome.org/) and the Human Genome Diversity Project of (http: // www. hagsc.org/hgdp/).
In general, we study certain patterns of your genetic variation and compare them with a database of people with a known ethnic/geographical origin in order to infer your ancestry composition.
How does ancestry work?
At tellmeGen we use the admxture program (https://www.genetics.ucla.edu/software/admixture/) to determine your ancestry from a reference database of individuals of known ethnic/geographical origin.
The tellmeGen database, currently has over 2,700 individuals belonging to 48 ethnic groups spread across 8 broad geographical areas: Europe (9); Africa (10); Middle East (3); Central Asia (2); South Asia (9); East Asia (8); Oceania (1); America (6).
The association between each ethnic group that makes up the database and its origin allows us to assign a possible geographical origin to your genetic composition.
The samples sorting that make up the database has been made following a rigorous quality control to ensure the highest precision in the allocation of your ancestral components.
What to expect from my ancestry result?
What you see in your ancestry report is the assignment, expressed as a percentage, of your genetic composition in the different ethnic groups considered herein, organized by their geographical locations. Therefore, these values are, to a greater or lesser extent, the reflection of the ethnic origin of your ancestors.
Although our database has ethnic groups distributed throughout the world, there are many populations that are not represented. In general, it is true that those populations that are geographically closer present, at the same time, greater genetic affinities. If you have a known ancestry in some population not represented in our database, what you will observe in the report is that the assignment of your genetic composition has been distributed among those ethnic groups represented that are geographically closer.
Ancestry… What is next?
The determination of your ethnicity is the beta version of the applications that we are developing to give you the maximum amount of information about your ancestry from your genetic material. We will continuously improve the existing databases to include new ethnic groups from unrepresented geographical areas, which will allow us to improve the extent and accuracy of the analysis of the origin of your ancestors.
Next versions of my ancestry results will include…
- Analysis of Neanderthal ancestry: it is known that there was inbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals at different times in our history. We will estimate the amount of Neanderthal genetic material present at your genetic composition, derived from those inbreeding processes.
- Mitochondrial DNA analysis: mitochondrial DNA is transmitted from mothers to their offsprings. Therefore, by studying the genetic variation of the genetic material present in the mitochondria it is possible to infer, in both men and women, their maternal lineage. Maternal lineages, called haplogroups, have a high geographic specificity, which is why they are widely used in population genetics studies as well as in genealogical analyses.
- Y-chromosome analysis: the Y-chromosome is transmitted, exclusively, from fathers to their male children. By studying the genetic variation of the Y-chromosome, it is possible to infer paternal lineages. Paternal lineages, also called haplogroups, have a high geographic specificity and are therefore widely used in population genetics studies. Because of its special type of inheritance, similar to the transmission of surnames in many human cultures, it has been used in genealogical analyses.
The scientific team at tellmeGen continues to work to offer you the best possible information about your ancestry.