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ASCENDANCE

Il a toujours été fascinant d’apprendre à connaître nos origines et de retracer notre parcours évolutif, tant en tant qu’individus qu’en tant qu’espèce.

Comme nous le savons, nos origines en tant qu’espèce remontent au continent africain, il y a 200 000 ans. Depuis lors, de nombreux chemins ont été empruntés par les humains à travers les différents continents de notre planète jusqu’à aujourd’hui.

C’est la somme de tous les événements et processus démographiques qui façonne la composition génétique des populations d’aujourd’hui, faisant que chacune d’entre elles possède ses propres caractéristiques.

Heureusement, aujourd’hui, grâce aux progrès de la génétique, au test ADN d’ascendance développé par tellmeGen et aux nouvelles améliorations que nous avons apportées et intégrées dans notre mise à jour, vous pouvez découvrir qui sont vos ancêtres grâce à l’étude exhaustive de votre composition génétique et, de cette façon, connaître encore plus précisément vos origines. Chez tellmeGen, nous sommes toujours à la pointe de la génétique et de la médecine pour vous offrir le meilleur service et les meilleurs soins dans le cadre de nos tests ADN.

Análisis Ancestralidad Tellmegen

Que fait-on dans le test ADN pour connaître ses origines ?

Pour déterminer votre ascendance, chez tellmeGen, nous utilisons la fraction des données obtenues lors de votre génotypage correspondant à l’ADN autosomal, qui contient à la fois votre patrimoine génétique paternel et maternel.

Par la suite, nous soumettons cette fraction de données à un strict contrôle de qualité, ce qui nous permet de conserver et d’utiliser uniquement les marqueurs génétiques de haute qualité pour l’analyse, évitant ainsi d’éventuelles déviations erronées dans nos résultats, car la qualité et la précision sont des valeurs fondamentales pour tellmeGen.

Une fois identifiée et affinée, nous comparons cette portion de votre variation à celle de milliers d’individus de référence appartenant à 39 groupes ethniques répartis sur 7 grandes zones géographiques ou superpopulations comme suit : Europe (13), Afrique (6), Asie occidentale (3), Asie du Sud et centrale (6), Asie orientale (7), Océanie (2) et Amériques (2).

Pour générer cet échantillon de référence, nos spécialistes en bioinformatique, nos médecins et nos généticiens ont utilisé des bases de données publiques de variabilité humaine connues dans le monde entier et reconnues par consensus par la communauté scientifique, telles que le projet 1000 génomes et le projet Human Genetic Diversity.

Ainsi, en étudiant certains schémas dans votre variation génétique et en les comparant à notre base de données, nous sommes en mesure de déduire votre ascendance avec un haut niveau de précision dans notre test ADN.

Mapa Ancestralidad Tellmegen

Comment fonctionne le test ADN des origines tellmeGen ?

Chez tellmeGen, nous utilisons le logiciel Admixture pour déduire votre ascendance à partir d’une base de données de référence générée par nos experts, contenant des milliers d’individus d’origine ethnique connue. Cette base de données a été générée en maintenant un contrôle de qualité rigoureux, en sélectionnant des individus d’origine ethnique pure et représentative pour chaque groupe ethnique.

La similitude entre la composition génétique de chacun des individus qui composent les différents groupes ethniques de la base de données et votre composition génétique nous permettra de déduire statistiquement, et de manière très précise, quelle part de votre ADN provient de chacun de ces groupes ethniques.

Que pouvez-vous attendre de la nouvelle mise à jour d’Ancestry ?

Avec la nouvelle mise à jour de notre étude d’ascendance, nos experts soumettent les échantillons génétiques de chaque personne à une étude selon des normes strictes et des filtres de qualité exhaustifs. Grâce à cela, nous pouvons vous offrir les résultats les plus précis et le maximum d’informations sur votre ascendance à partir de l’étude de votre matériel génétique.

Ainsi, ce que vous verrez dans votre rapport de résultats sera la répartition, en pourcentage, que nous faisons de votre composition génétique dans les différents groupes ethniques considérés, organisés par localisation géographique. Ces informations seront le reflet exact de l’origine ethnique de vos ancêtres et, par extension, de votre propre origine.

Ancestralidad británica tellmeGen

Test des haplogroupes maternels

NOUVEAU

Un haplogroupe mitochondrial est un ensemble de variations trouvées dans l’ADN mitochondrial humain. Les haplogroupes retracent et décrivent le chemin emprunté par nos ancêtres maternels, depuis les origines de l’espèce humaine en Afrique jusqu’à son expansion dans le monde.

Avec le test d’haplogroupe de tellmeGen intégré à notre étude génétique complète, vous pouvez découvrir l’origine de vos ancêtres maternels et leur dispersion à travers le monde à différentes périodes de l’histoire.

Auparavant, imaginer où vivaient vos ancêtres et comment ils se déplaçaient dans le monde il y a des centaines de milliers d’années relevait de la science-fiction. Maintenant, c’est au bout de vos doigts.

Quel voyage vos ancêtres ont-ils fait entre il y a plus de 150 000 ans et l’époque moderne ? Vous pouvez maintenant le découvrir et le consulter sur la carte de tellmeGen des migrations de vos haplogroupes maternels.

Partagez-vous un haplogroupe avec des personnes célèbres ? Il existe de nombreux personnages historiques dont nous connaissons les haplogroupes maternels. En outre, de nombreuses célébrités contemporaines ont également rendu publics les résultats de leurs tests génétiques – découvrez si vous partagez leur ADN !

LE FUTUR?

La détermination de votre appartenance ethnique est une version bêta des applications que nous allons développer pour vous donner le maximum d’informations sur votre ascendance à partir de votre matériel génétique. Nous allons continuellement améliorer les bases de données existantes pour inclure de nouveaux groupes ethniques de zones géographiques non représentées, ce qui nous permettra d’améliorer l’extension et la précision de l’analyse de l’origine de vos ancêtres.

Les futures versions incluront:

  • Analyse de l’ascendance Néandertal: on sait qu’il y a eu des croisements entre l’homme moderne et l’homme de Néandertal à différentes époques de notre histoire. Nous évaluerons la quantité de matériel génétique Néandertal présent dans votre composition génétique, dérivée de ces croisements.
  • Analyse de l’ADN du chromosome Y: le chromosome Y est transmis exclusivement des parents à leurs fils. En étudiant la variation génétique du chromosome Y, il est possible d’inférer des lignées paternelles. Les lignées paternels, également appelés haplogroupes, ont une spécificité géographique élevée et sont donc largement utilisés dans les études de génétique des populations. En raison de son type particulier d’héritage, similaire à la transmission de noms de famille dans nombreuses cultures humaines, il a été utilisé dans des analyses généalogiques.

Dans l’équipe scientifique de tellmeGen, nous continuons à travailler pour vous offrir les meilleures informations possibles à partir de vos données génétiques.

Notre référence de population

La base de données de tellmeGen contient des milliers d’individus appartenant 39 groupes ethniques répartis dans 7 grandes zones géographiques mondiales : Europe (13) ; Afrique (6) ; Asie occidentale (3) ; Asie du Sud et centrale (6) ; Asie orientale (7) ; Océanie (2) ; Amériques (2).

EUROPE

We have always thought of the Finnish population being limited to only being found in Finland but now and days these ethnic group is not limited just to this Northern European country. The term Finnish not only represents Finland, but it also includes populations from Sweden, such as the Tornedalians; Norway, towns like Kyven or Forest; and also, Russia, towns like the Ingrian.

There are approximately 7 million of Finnish in existence today, not only counting the people that reside within the country, but also everyone that´s descendant from them. Most of the population is found in Finland and it´s neighboring countries such as Sweden, Norway, and Russia but due to the migration of people you can also find Finnish descendants in Countries like the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil and Argentina.

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Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent closest to Asia. There is no precise definition of the area it covers due to its different geographical, ethnic or social connotations. However, the region includes countries such as Russia, Poland, Estonia and Ukraine, the former being the largest and most populated and concentrating more than 15% of the total European population.

The region is characterized by Slavic, Greek, Byzantine and Ottoman cultural influences, which have contributed to its cultural heterogeneity. The region is made up of people belonging to dozens of ethnic groups such as Poles, Slovaks, Bosnians or Russians, among others, but with common cultural and/or genetic connections.

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The British Isles, which include Great Britain and Ireland, are located northeast of the European coast. The British are descendants of various ethnic groups that settled in the area over the past millennia.

The British form a diverse, multinational and multicultural society. Thanks to genetic analyses carried out on ancient samples, it has been shown that the prehistoric native populations underwent a series of demographic events that led to their almost total replacement. Of particular note is the replacement of Mesolithic populations that took place around 6000 BC, with the arrival of Neolithic farming populations. In addition to their prehistoric roots, modern Britons are known to be descendants of several ethnic groups that settled in the islands at different times. These ethnic groups are the Celts, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings and Normans.

Due, above all, to the important expansion during the 19th and 20th centuries, the British population is widely distributed throughout the world, with an important presence in the United States, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.

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The Orcadians are an indigenous people inhabiting the Orkney Islands, an archipelago located in the north of Scotland with about seventy islands, of which only twenty are inhabited. The population is 22,200, of which about 17,000 live on the largest island. Historically, the Orcadians are descendants of the Picts, Norse and Scots, and speak their own dialect derived from Scots and belonging to the Indo-European languages. The Vikings made Orkney their headquarters during their pirate expeditions.

The Orcadians base their economy on agriculture and marine resources. As for their religion, they practice Presbyterianism. They have a rich heritage of folklore.

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Scandinavia is a geographic and cultural region of northern Europe that includes Denmark, Sweden and Norway. The area is home to some 21 million people and its inhabitants speak the Nordic languages, although there are indigenous Sami-speaking minorities of Uralic origin.

Scandinavia has one of the world's most prosperous economies and is oriented towards exports and international trade. The region has undergone important migratory processes, with a strong emigration at the end of the First World War and an important arrival of immigrants after the Second World War, mainly from Finland, Iraq, Somalia, Germany and Syria.

The Scandinavian countries share much of their culture. They are strongly linked to the history of the Vikings, Germanic warriors from Scandinavia who were characterized by being great navigators, famous for their plundering and for leaving an important mark on European history.

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Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. Although the calculation of the number of Germans depends on the criteria applied, it is estimated that the population would be around 150 million people, of which 62.5 million reside in Germany, which is 42% of the total population. However, the Germanic people are widely distributed throughout the world. Most importantly, the United States is home to more than 60 million Germans, a third of the German diaspora. Other important locations are Brazil, Canada, Argentina, South Africa and France.

Its language is German, the second most spoken Germanic language after English. It belongs to the Indo-European language family. In terms of religion, currently one third of the population is Protestant, another third is Roman Catholic and the remaining third is non-religious. The Germanic society has had great contributions to the society in multiple fields like science, philosophy or literature.

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The French people are an ethnic group belonging to the Group or Romance-speaking populations originating in present-day France. Historically, the French people have predominantly Gallic or Celtic, Latin and Germanic origins, but also with influences from the Basque, Iberian, Italic or Greek peoples, among others. France has long been a mosaic of local customs and regional differences that is reflected in the language. Although most of them speak French, a language belonging to the family of Indo-European languages, others such as occitano, Catalan, Corsican, Basque or Alsatian are spoken in their respective regions.

The French population is estimated at around 95 million people. Of these, some 67 million reside in France, but can also be found widely distributed in other countries such as the United States, Algeria, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Germany or Morocco, among many others. Most of the French people belong to the Catholic Church, although Protestant, Jewish or Muslim representatives can also be found, as well as atheists or agnostics.

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The term French Basque refers to the group of people originating in northern Spain and southwest of France, located on both sides of the western Pyrenees. The origin of the Basque has given rise to many theories, some of which trace their origins to the first paleolithic settlers of Europe. In this sense, they have been related to other European and Mediterranean populations such as the Iberians, Picts, Irish, Welsh, Berbers or Etruscans.

The Basques are characterized by the Basque language that is not related to any of the Indo-European languages. Thanks to numerous genetic studies, it is thought that the Basques are a remnant of the first inhabitants of Western Europe; specifically, those of the Franco-Cantabrian region, which mixed with the first groups of Neolithic farmers arriving in the Iberian Peninsula.

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It refers to the Ashkenazi Jews descendants of the Jews who settled in Central and Eastern Europe during medieval times, mainly in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine and Romania, among others. They developed particular customs and laws that differentiate them from other Jewish peoples, such as their own language, Yiddish that combine terms from German dialects along with some of Slavic or Hebrew origin.

The Ashkenazi population is estimated at 11.2 million people and some researchers indicate that they account for 70% of the world's Jewish population. They have a wide diaspora, being more importantly found in the United States (5-6 million people) and Israel (2.8 million), but also in Russia, Argentina, United Kingdom, Canada, etc.

Its history is marked by the Nazi Holocaust during World War II, in which two-thirds of the Ashkenazi Jews were killed, also causing mass migration to other regions.

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The Iberian population originated in the Iberian Peninsula, in the southwest of Europe. This includes the countries of Andorra, Portugal and Spain. Although the term Iberian has been used to identify all the inhabitants of the peninsula, there is another more restricted ethnic sense that identifies them as the ethical group that occupied the eastern and southern Iberian Peninsula. These people, defined by Greeks and Romans, were influenced by other Mediterranean towns such as the Phoenicians or the Greek mimes.

It is known that the first settlers arrived in the Iberian Peninsula more than 40,000 years ago from southern France. The Iberian Peninsula has been a crossroads for many ethnic groups in the Mediterranean, Central and Eastern Europe throughout history. This, today, is reflected in the great cultural diversity of their current populations. In addition, due to the role played by Spain and Portugal, a large proportion of inhabitants of from South America are descendants of the Iberian population. This occur during the late fifteenth century which was at the time of the discoveries and subsequent colonization of the Americas.

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The Italian population originally comes from the Italia peninsula, situated in the south of Europe occupying a vast position in the center of the Mediterranean.

The Italian population is estimated to have about 55 million inhabitants. Between the late nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries, there was a massive movement of Italians to different areas around the world. This was known as the ¨Italian diaspora¨. It is estimated that today more 80 million people around the world have a direct or partial Italian ancestry.

Italy is the cradle of the Roman Empire, it dominated all of Western Europe and the Mediterranean area since its beginning in the 8th century B.C. until its disappearance in the 5th century. This period left an indelible footprint in the image of Western civilization that is known today. At the genetic level, current Italians have genetic differences between their populations from the north and the south. The southern Italians are closer to the Mediterranean populations like the Greeks, while the northern Italians are closer to the Iberians and French of the south today.

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Sardinian was a term used to describe the inhabitants of the Italian island of Sardinia in the Western Mediterranean. Researchers think that the first inhabitants of Sardinia arrived from the Iberian Peninsula and the Italian Peninsula. However, as it is with other isolated populations, current Sardines differ significantly from other European populations. Different investigations have shown how the Sardinian population show a clear genetic differentiation with respect to the rest of the populations in their geographical environment since its presents genetic variants are considered rare at high frequencies.

Recent studies on the origin of the Sardinian population based on their genetic makeup have shown that this ethnic group was closest to the first Neolithic populations for more than 10,000 years ago, this is where the near east populated Europe displacing the Paleolithic populations proceeded from.

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The Balkan peninsula, delimited to the north by the Balkan Mountains, is one of the three great peninsulas of southern Europe. The area, besides being surrounded by seas, is crossed by multiple rivers such as the Danube, the Var or the Struma, which facilitate communication between the different regions.

The area includes several countries such as Greece, Bulgaria, Croatia, Slovenia, Albania and part of Turkey, with a population of almost 53 million inhabitants. A multitude of different languages are spoken in the area, predominantly the Slavic language group (Bulgarian, Slovenian or Macedonian), Greek, and a group of Neo-Latin languages (such as Romanian or Moldavian). In addition, the heterogeneity of the area is also evident in the different cultures of its inhabitants.

The majority ethnic group in the area are the Greeks or Hellenes, with a population of more than 15 million people. They are native to Greece, Cyprus and some other Balkan regions, although, as a result of their enormous historical expansion, they constitute a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established all over the world. In ancient times, the Greeks were organized in city-states where the concept of democracy originated. Their main language is the Greek language, spoken since the time of Ancient Greece. It is an Indo-European language that constitutes a branch in itself and is closely related to Armenian and Indo-Iranian languages. This ethnic group is credited with very notable contributions to the field of universal culture, such as the first alphabet or important foundations in the field of philosophy.

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AFRICA

The Maghreb is a region located in North Africa that includes the westernmost part of the Arab world. The region includes Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Western Sahara and Tunisia, as well as the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. It has a population of more than 87 million people.

The original inhabitants of the Maghreb were the Imazighen, generally called Berbers in English. With the arrival of the Arabs in the 7th century, the population of the Maghreb converted to Islam and began a long process of linguistic and cultural Arabization. The region has received several waves of migration, such as the arrival of the Andalusians, the Ottoman Empire or the French colonization, which have left their mark on the different cultures. Today, most of the inhabitants of the Maghreb speak Maghrebi Arabic, although there is also a percentage of inhabitants who speak the Berber language, French or Spanish.

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Senegal and Gambia are the two West African countries located furthest west of the continent. The former, with more than 15 million inhabitants, is named after the Senegal River that marks its northern border. The second, with a much smaller area and just over 2 million inhabitants, is completely surrounded by Senegal and situated on the banks of the Gambia River.

Both countries share a past strongly associated with the slave market, first by the Portuguese and later by the British Empire. In addition, much of their customs and culture are also shared. Throughout the region, the majority religion is Islam. They are also known for their excellent music and typical dances.

In the area, there are a number of endemic ethnic groups, the Mandinka being the most numerous, representing more than 30% of the population of both countries. Their population is over 13 million and their main language is Mandinka, with numerous dialects. They are predominantly Muslim, but very few dress in the Arab style and few women wear veils. Most of them are now farmers or fishermen and are highly esteemed djelis or bards, who are traditional storytellers who keep the history of the people alive.

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Sierra Leone and Liberia are two West African countries founded to repatriate enslaved and subsequently freed people to the African continent in the 19th century. During this period, freed slaves founded Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone. Due to the British influence in both countries, the official and most spoken language is English.

This region, with more than 10 million inhabitants, is one of the least developed in the world due to various social problems, although it possesses important mineral and fishing resources and an agriculture to be promoted. Nearly two thirds of its inhabitants live from agriculture and industry is limited to the processing of raw materials. The culture of both countries has a mixture of African and English elements.

There are several ethnic groups in the region, the Mandé people being the most numerous. They represent about 30% of the total population. Their main activities are cattle raising and hunting, which they carry out in a little mechanized way. Their main language is Mendé and they are characterized by a curiosity, and that is that their men are initiated early in the Poro society in which they are prepared to achieve wisdom, responsibility and gain power, with a duration of several years. During this period, members converse with each other using a secret language and passwords known only to other members.

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The countries Nigeria and Ghana and the Esan and Yoruba regions are located in West Africa, specifically in the Gulf of Guinea. Historically, the territory has been the object of constant European expeditions, mainly by the Portuguese, British and Dutch for the trade of the large amount of gold in the area, which is why it is also known as the Gold Coast.

The region is home to more than 230 million people, making it one of the most populated areas on the African continent. Most of them belong to Islam, although the percentage of Protestants and Christians is also relevant. In this region there are more than 250 different ethnic groups, the Yoruba people being the most important.

The Yoruba people have about 58 million inhabitants and constitute 30% of Nigeria's population. Most of them speak the Yoruba language and are mainly Muslim or Christian, although they maintain many tenets of the traditional faith of their ancestors. They are also one of the most urbanized peoples in Africa, living in well-organized urban centers.

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Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries, the former with 46 million inhabitants and the latter with 1.2 million. Both share Lake Victoria, the second largest freshwater lake in the world and an important source of wealth for the inhabitants of the area. The region is known for its important biodiversity.

Due to its climate and natural resources, agriculture is the most important sector in the region with coffee as the main product. The culture in Kenya and Uganda is very diverse due to the coexistence of a multitude of ethnic groups, such as the Luyia and Luo.

The Luyia people, with more than 10 million people, represent 14% of the inhabitants of the region and are the most important ethnic group in Kenya. Their language is Luhya, derived from the Bantu languages. Their culture includes polygamy, although it is less and less practiced.

The Luo represent more than 10% of the population of the area, with more than 7 million people, and they speak the Luo language as well as Swahili and English. As a curiosity, in this ethnic group the names traditionally given to children reflected aspects related to pregnancy or childbirth, such as the season of the year or the time of birth.

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The term pygmy is used to designate a group of human groups living in Central Africa, especially in the African equatorial forests, and characterized by their short stature. Together with the Bushmen or San, they are considered the oldest inhabitants of Africa. The latter are mostly located in the south of the continent.

The pygmies hunt in a very traditional way, with nets, arrows and javelins, and gather fruits, tubers and honey. They speak several languages, although they share some words, which indicates that in the past they may have had a common language. The inbreeding practiced among them and their isolation in forests has caused a different evolution from the rest of the African peoples. For this reason, there are clear elements common to all of them: their short stature and their short life expectancy of between 15 and 24 years.

The San or Bushmen are also traditionally hunter-gatherers and speak Joisan languages, characterized by the incorporation of clicking sounds. They are composed of several villages and have a population of about 105,000 people. Their society has been extensively studied and in it, women play an important role, with an elevated status from which they can make important decisions.

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WEST ASIA

The Arabian Peninsula and Egypt are located at the confluence of Africa and Asia. Because of their geographical proximity, both regions share important cultural and social aspects, with a common majority language, Arabic.

Egypt borders the Mediterranean to the north and the Red Sea to the east. It is mainly a desert region, but is crossed by the Nile River, which has provided the country with very fertile, densely populated areas and has marked the rich history of the region. Egypt was the cradle of the ancient Egyptian civilization and, together with the Mesopotamian civilization, was the origin of today's Western culture, decisively influencing the history of mankind. Different ethnic groups coexist in the country, with the Egyptians being the majority group with more than 100 million inhabitants, followed by the Bedouins, Gypsies and Nubians, with more than 1 million people each.

The Arabian Peninsula and the Mediterranean Levant include countries such as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Yemen, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, among others. It is generally a largely desert area, although the presence of monsoons in the south and east allows for agricultural activities. Arab identity should not be confused with religious affiliation, although most Arabs today are Muslims, with small Christian minorities.

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Turkey, Iran and the Caucasus are located in Western Asia and include more than 183 million people.

The Caucasus, named after a mountain range, includes Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia. The peoples currently residing in this area speak about 100 different languages and dialects, most of which belong to the Caucasian language family. It is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the world where some groups, such as the Adyghe, have been present for thousands of years and others, such as the Russians, arrived a few centuries ago. It is an ecologically rich area with a wealth of mineral and energy resources. It has a rich folkloric tradition with many connections to ancient Indian, Scandinavian and Greek cultures.

The majority ethnic group in Turkey is the Turkic people, although their presence is not limited to this country. This area, due to its strategic position, has been a historical crossroads between different cultures and civilizations, which is reflected in its heterogeneous culture.

Iran, whose official language is Persian, is home to the Iranian peoples, a group of ethnic groups that share the Iranian languages and originate from the Iranian plateau. Although the majority of Iranian peoples live in Iran, they are widely distributed with significant presence also in other regions of East and West Asia, with an estimated total population of about 210 million people.

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The name Bedouin is attributed to the nomadic Arab population that inhabits the deserts of the Near East, the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. Their origin is established in the Arabian Peninsula, although during the Arab conquests of the 7th century they expanded widely throughout the rest of the regions. It is estimated that the Bedouin population amounts to more than 25 million people settled mainly in Sudan, where they are the majority ethnic group, followed by Algeria, Saudi Arabia and Iraq, among other countries.

Today's Bedouins are generally organized into tribes. Their main language is Badawi or Beye, a language of Afro-Asiatic origin widely spoken in the vicinity of the Red Sea. Their economy is centered on cattle raising and they organize their life around this activity. They are constantly on the move in search of water and pasture. As for their religion, most of them are Sunni Muslims.

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CENTRAL & SOUTH ASIA

Central Asia consists of five countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It includes more than 71 million people, although it is one of the least densely populated regions. Central Asia has historically been characterized by its nomadic peoples and its location on the Silk Road. The aridity of the area and its remoteness from the sea have made it difficult to practice agriculture and trade, the main reason for the nomadic nature of its peoples.

During the Middle Ages, the region was predominantly composed of Iranian peoples, with current representation in the area through the Pashtuns, Pamiris or Tajiks. After the expansion of the Turkic peoples, it also became the homeland of the Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and Uyghurs and, as a result, this region is also called Turkestan.

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Pakistan and Afghanistan are located in South Asia. They have more than 200 million and 36 million inhabitants respectively.

The region has been, due to its geographical location, home to different cultures, as well as the object of invasions and settlements by Hindus, Persians, Greeks or Muslims, among others. Pakistan is a country with a great ethnic diversity inhabited by various peoples such as Pashtuns, Sindhi, Punjabis or Baluchis, with Urdu and English as official languages. Afghanistan is also a multilingual and multiethnic country with peoples such as the Pashtuns, who account for 42% of its population, Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks or Baluchis, with Dari and Pashto as official languages.

The predominant religion is Islam, which is an important part of their culture and lifestyle.

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Gujarati are an ethnic group that traditionally inhabits the state of Gujarat, which is located in southwestern India, bordering Pakistan to the north with the state of Rajasthan, to the east by Madhya Pradesh state, to the southeast by Maharashtra state and to the west by the Arabian Sea. The Gujaratis speak the Gujarati language which is one of the Indo-Indian languages spoken in the Indian subcontinent.

The state of Gujarat has more than 60 million inhabitants, which makes it the ninth most populous state in India. Since becoming a state on May 1, 1960, Gujarat is one of India's most economically growing areas. Two of India's leading independence leaders were born in this state: Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

In addition, the Gujarati are a village with a great seafaring tradition and a history of migrations to different territories, mainly on the shores of the Arabian Sea with which it shares the same mercantile culture. Gujaratis are considered to represent around 30% of migrations from Indian populations. Currently the main Gujaratis colonies by number of inhabitants are in Pakistan, United Kingdom, United States, Canada as well as several countries of East and South Africa.

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Punjabis are an ethnolinguistic group associated with the Punjabi region, located in northern India and Pakistan. They are more than 145 million inhabitants with an important diaspora, especially in the United Kingdom, Canada or the United States.

Traditionally, the Punjabi identity is mainly linguistic, geographical and cultural. Their identity is independent of historical origin or religion and refers to those who reside in the Punjab region or associate with its population and those who consider the Punjabi language their mother tongue. Its culture is one of the oldest in the world, although it is marked by its complexity by Hindu, Buddhist, and Islamic influence, with special relevance in poetry, philosophy, spirituality or cuisine.

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Bengalis are one of the Indo-Aryan ethnic groups native to the Bengal region of South Asia, which is divided between Bangladesh and India. They make up 98% of the population of Bangladesh and their language is Bengali, a language of the Indo-European language family.

The Bengali population is estimated at 260 million people, of which about 163 million live in Bangladesh, and can also be found in other regions such as India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and Qatar. The Bengalis represent, after the Han Chinese and Arabs, the third largest human ethnic group in terms of population.

Within the population, four different religious subgroups can be found: Muslims, who represent the majority, Hindus, Christians and Buddhists. In addition, like all major cultural groups in history, Bengalis have exerted a great influence in various fields, especially in arts and architecture, language, folklore, politics or technology.

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The Telugu people are an ethnic group native to the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent, south of the Narmada and Mahanadi rivers. This region basically consists of the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil, Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. The population of these regions amounts to more than 230 million inhabitants, about 20% of the country's population. They are also present in Sri Lanka, where they make up about 17% of the population.

The Telugu people speak the Telugu language, which belongs to the Dravidian languages, spoken by more than 200 million people in the Indian subcontinent. In addition to their language, the Dravidian peoples are distinguished from the other inhabitants of India by their physique, as they are generally short in stature and have dark brown skin.

The Sinhalese predominate in Sri Lanka (75% of its population), an ethnic group native to the island, characterized by speaking Sinhalese and are the result of the interbreeding of the natives with the Indo-Europeans who dominated the country. Sinhalese society is characterized by being mainly Buddhist and by the important role of women in society with an active presence in different areas.

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EAST ASIA

The Japanese people are the native ethnic group of the Japanese archipelago, consisting of 6852 islands. The Japanese represent almost the entire population of Japan, which currently numbers about 130 million inhabitants and shares a common language, Japanese. In addition, it is estimated that about 4 million Japanese or their descendants live outside Japan, mainly concentrated in Brazil and the United States.

The oldest archaeological evidence from the Japanese archipelago shows the presence of Paleolithic hunter-gatherer groups dating back more than 39,000 years, when there was still a land connection with the Asian continent. Ethnographically, there are three distinct groups that encompass the term Japanese: the Yamato, the Ainu and the Ryukyuan. Yamato people are the largest group and are generally identified in a general way with the Japanese ethnic group.

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The Korean people is one of the largest in East Asia, with a population of more than 80 million, although most of its representatives live on the Korean Peninsula and share Korean as their main language. It is one of the most homogeneous populations in the world, although culturally there are differences between North and South Koreans, mainly due to political distinctions that led to the separation of the Peninsula in 1945.

Modern Koreans are believed to be descendants of Manchurian, Mongolian and southern Siberian populations who settled in northern Korea during the Bronze Age. An estimated 7.5 million Koreans reside outside the Korean Peninsula, predominantly in the United States, China and Japan.

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This group includes the Mongolian people and the Oroqen, Xibo, Hezhen and Daur ethnic groups, typically located in northern China and all of them recognized as minority ethnic groups by the Chinese government.

The Mongols, the majority ethnic group of this group, are located in northern China, the Mongolia region and southern Russia, with more than 10 million representatives. Their main language is Mongolian and most of them practice Tibetan Buddhism.

Some ethnic groups in northern China are closely related to the Mongolian people and are therefore included in this group. The Oroqen are one of the oldest ethnic groups inhabiting today's China, with approximately 7,000 representatives located in the province of Inner Mongolia. The Xibe are composed of about 188,000 people, inhabit mainly the Uyghur region of Xinjiang and have their own language. The Hezhen are mainly located in the Siberian area and Heilongjiang province and are composed of about 18,000 people. Finally, the Daur mainly inhabit Inner Mongolia and the provinces of Heilongjiang and Xinjiang with a population of about 130,000 people.

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This category includes the Chinese Dai ethnic group and those belonging to the Indochina peninsula, which is located in southern China and eastern India and includes Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, Thailand and Malaysia.

The Dai people are one of the 56 officially recognized ethnic groups in China. Its population, which currently numbers more than 8 million inhabitants, is located in the extreme southwest of the country, specifically in the province of Yunnan. From an anthropological point of view, we cannot consider the Dai people as a homogeneous group since they actually encompass a set of cultural groups with common characteristics. They speak dialects of the Sino-Tibetan language family, widely used in Southeast Asia. Due to their location, the Dai people are closely related to other Indochinese populations. These include the Vietnamese population, represented by about 90 million people and native to Vietnam and southern China; the Khmer people, who are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia with about 15 million people; and the Thai population, located mostly in Thailand with a population of more than 50 million people.

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The Han People have referred to the east ethnic group as well originating from China. It is the largest ethnic group in the world with about 1.2 billion people, representing 92% of China's population and about 18% of the world's population.

The origin of the Han People is found in the confederation of tribes, known as Huaxia, which inhabited along the Yellow River in Neolithic times. 2,000 years ago the culture has expanded from this area to the south absorbing the different ethnic groups in its path. The beginning of this period of expansion began with the historical period of the Han dynasty, which was one of the first great eras in Chinese history and which made it the main regional power of the east as well. At the genetic level there is some stratification between the Han of the north and south, it is considered as a relatively homogeneous population.

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The Siberian Eskimo aboriginal people mainly inhabit the Chukchi Peninsula in Siberia, although they can also be found in Alaska, especially on St. Lawrence Island, the Yukon Delta or the Kuskokwim River. The Siberian Eskimo population numbers about 21,000 people and their most widely spoken language is Yupik, which is their native language, although they also speak English and Russian.

Traditionally, the families focus on fishing, especially for salmon and seals, and it is common to meet during the summer in camps for this purpose. The traditional clothing of this group consists of fur garments that they make themselves, with hoods to protect them from the ice, sleeves and pockets. In addition, their typical clothing includes seal gut raincoats, goggles to protect the eyes and snowshoes.

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Of Siberia's 40 million inhabitants, 10% are indigenous. Although some indigenous people, such as the Yakut, have their own republics, many others are in danger of extinction, threatened by the environmental degradation of the region.

The Yakut, included in this group, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia. They live in the Sakha Republic and number just over 450,000 individuals. Their main activity is hunting, fishing and horse breeding and, for the most part, they are Orthodox Christians.

The Even and the Ulchi are other indigenous communities of the region formed by 19,000 and 3,000 people, respectively, dedicated especially to reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing. In all of them it is common to use sleds to move through the snow.

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OCEANIA

The Papuan people are the native ethnic group and Papua New Guinea. The country of Papua New Guinea comprises the eastern half of the island of New Guinea, as well as numerous islands that surround it, located in the region known as Melanesia which is in turn part of Oceania.

Despite having only 7 million inhabitants, Papua New Guinea is considered to be one of the countries with the greatest cultural diversity in the world, with more than 1,000 distinct cultural groups highlighting its linguistic richness as more than 800 languages have been counted. Papua New Guinea has been populated since a very remote time, the oldest archaeological remains found in the area date back 60,000 years. Although very little is known about these early settlers of Papua New Guinea it is believed to have come from Southeast Asia. It is known that the descendants of the first settlers have historically occupied the mountainous areas of the country while in coastal areas they are descended from ancient later migrations, originating from Malaysia.

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Melanesians are the indigenous inhabitants of the region of Melanesia, a sub-region of Oceania stretching from New Guinea in the West to Tonga in the East and including Fiji, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea.

People in this region have a distinctive ancestry. Studies indicate that the first settlers in the region arrived during the migration of Africans to Asia between 50 000 and 100 000 years ago. Much later, between 4000 and 3000 BC, an influx of Austronesian migrants arrived in Melanesia. According to historians, there was a long period of interaction between the latter and the pre-existing inhabitants, resulting in numerous complex genetic, linguistic and cultural mixtures.

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AMERICA

The indigenous people of South and Central America, also called aborigines or American Indians, are the original inhabitants of this geographic area. In many cases, their descendants maintain their culture and customs. Their origin is not entirely clear, although it is believed that they are descendants of groups of hunters who migrated to America through the Bering Strait during the last Würm glaciation.

Native American cultures vary enormously due to their widespread distribution throughout the continent, although they share a predilection for music and for having agriculture and livestock as their main economic engines.

This category includes the Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec and Mixe ethnic groups (Mexico), the Quechua (Peru and Bolivia), Karitiana and Surui (Brazil), Chane (Argentina) and Piapoco (Colombia and Venezuela).

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This category includes the Pima or Akimel O'odham people. This is an indigenous group located in Arizona (United States) and in the Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuahua, whose name refers to their origin as "people of the river". The current Pima people have a few hundred inhabitants whose main occupation is cattle ranching.

According to ethnolinguistic research, the Pima people originated in western Canada, from where they descended across California to their current location, where they had to fight with the Seri ethnic group in order to establish themselves. At the genetic level, it has been verified that the members of the Pima ethnic group are descendants of the first people who arrived in the American continent from East Asia more than 15,000 years ago.

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