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DISEASE STUDIES

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (diabetes) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. A diagnosis of gestational diabetes doesn’t mean that you need or do not insulin for its control, or that you had diabetes before you conceived, or that you will have diabetes after giving birth. This type of diabetes develops in about 90% of diabetic pregnancies.

Gestational diabetes does not have its own symptoms or signs, just complications.

In Spain, a systematic study between weeks 24-28 is recommended for all expectant mothers. For those mothers with a high risk of developing gestational diabetes, another study is recommended for a first visit and between weeks 32 – 35.

Any woman can develop gestational diabetes, but some women are at greater risk. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include:

  • Excess weight: You’re more likely to develop gestational diabetes if you’re significantly overweight with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher.
  • Family or personal health history: Your risk of developing gestational diabetes increases if you have prediabetes — slightly elevated blood sugar that may be a precursor to type 2 diabetes — or if a close family member, such as a parent or sibling, has type 2 diabetes. You’re also more likely to develop gestational diabetes if you had it during a previous pregnancy.
  • Personal history of glycosuria (elimination of sugar in urine) or carbohydrate intolerance
  • Nonwhite race: For reasons that aren’t clear, women who are black, Hispanic, American Indian or Asian are more likely to develop gestational diabetes.

Additional risk factors are:

  • Age greater than 25: Women older than age 25 are more likely to develop gestational diabetes.
  • If you delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds (4.1 kilograms), or if you had an unexplained stillbirth.
  • High blood pressure
  • Increased levels of amniotic fluid

Pregnancy hormones can block insulin from doing its job. When this happens, glucose levels may increase in a pregnant woman’s blood. When this happens, glucose levels may increase in a pregnant woman’s blood. Treating gestational diabetes can help to keep the mother and the baby healthy.

GENE OR REGION STUDIED


  • TCF7L2
  • MTNR1B
  • IGF2BP2
  • 7p13