According to the World Health Organization lifetime use of cocaine prevalence range from 1 to 3% in developed countries, with higher rates in the United States and in the producer countries. Cocaine consumption is a major problem worldwide that cause medical, psychological and social problems, including the spread of infectious diseases (http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/facts/cocaine/en/). It is estimated that around 40 to 60% of population variability in becoming addicted to nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drugs is attributable to genetic factors.
Cocaine use produces behavioural alterations and cause psychotic symptoms, in some cases can induce paranoia and physical dependence. Cocaine binds to monoamine transporters thereby blocking transmitter reuptake, and its psychostimulant properties are the result of increase in synaptic levels of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine.
Some people have a greater risk of becoming addicted to cocaine and at a genetic level; one of the possible causes of this susceptibility would be the presence of polymorphisms that affect genes involved in the regulation of the neuronal reward circuit.
GENE OR REGION STUDIED