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WELLNESS

Blood glucose in obese children

Glucose is a monosaccharide, the most basic unit of carbohydrates.

The human body cannot create glucose on its own; it enters the organism through food intake. In necessary or urgent situations, the body obtains glucose from the transformation of fats or proteins.

Glucose penetrates the cells and is used as energy to maintain vital functions of the body. In order for the organism to make use of glucose, it produces insulin which is a hormone that helps your body´s cells use the glucose.

Glycaemia is the glucose that circulates in the blood. The normal blood glucose level in human beings for non-diabetics should be stable between 75 to 110 mg/dL.

Basal Glycaemia is the amount of glucose present in the blood first thing in the morning after fasting (not eating for at least 8 hours).

Postprandial blood sugar measures blood glucose after eating a meal. The foods responsible for higher levels of glycaemia are those high in carbohydrates. In non-diabetic persons, although blood glucose levels rise after a meal, they return to normal approximately 2 hours later.

Obesity is a pathology characterized by an increase in body fat . It constitutes a world-wide public health problem. In the last 20 years, the number of obese children has increased. In Spain, in the period between 1984 (Estudio Paidos) and 2000 (Estudio enKid), the prevalence of obesity in school-age children has increased from 5 to 15% and to 24,7% for overweight children between the ages of 2-17 years of age, according to the latest survey by the National Health Survey (INE, 2005) with significant differences among the autonomous communities.

Obesity is a chronic, complex and multifaceted illness determined by the interaction of genetic, biologic, socioeconomic, conduct and environmental factors, acting through physiological mediators of energy intake and expenditure. Some 600 genes, markers and chromosomal regions related or linked to obesity phenotypes and which participate in its development have been identified. Obesity caused by mongenic illnesses is not frequent (around 5%) ; it develops early and follows a serious clinical course that should be evaluated early in pediatric tertiary care facilities. It is linked to changes in nutrition and a lack of physical exercise.

Obesity can be a secondary cause of some infrequent illnesses such as hypothyroidism, hypercortisolism, growth hormone deficiency and hypothalamic damage, among others. Obesity can also be a condition resulting from some drugs, such as steroids, antipsychotic drugs and some anti-epileptic drugs.

GENE OR REGION STUDIED


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