The Swedes are a Native Germanic ethnic group in eastern Scandinavian and adjacent islands. The population of Swedes is 14 million people of which 8 million reside in Sweden. There is a wide population diaspora, being found in other Nordic countries such as Finland and also in the United States (more than 4 million), Canada or Argentina.
The official language is Swedish, a Germanic language of the Family of Indo-European Languages. It descends from the Nordic antiquity, spoken in Scandinavia during the Viking era.
The growth of immigration after World War II has provoked a debate on the nature of the Swedish population. In fact, a Swedish government report states that researchers lashes the population according to five criteria: country of birth, citizenship, inbreeding, culture and appearance. His main religion is Lutheranism.
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Ancestry genetic testing provides information about the possible origin of our ancestors, by comparing our genetic material with reference populations that have a known geographical origin and ethnicity.
Knowing our origins has always intrigued us, whether at an individual level, with genealogical studies, or as a species, with different branches of science focused on this issue. In recent years, thanks to the scientific and technical advances that allow us to “look” into the genetic material, we have been able to answer many questions by reconstructing the history of our species: we know our origins, 200,000 years ago, in the African continent; we have unraveled the footprints of the journey that the modern human being undertook out of Africa that led us to populate all the continents; and, we understand the most recent demographic events, which continue to this day.
The sum of all these events is what configures the genetic composition of current populations, making each one to present distinctive characteristics. Despite the great knowledge we currently have on this issue, the study of our origins is a continuous and cumulative process, as the number of analyzed populations increases, our knowledge about past events will also increase.
HOW DO WE DETERMINE YOUR ANCESTRY RESULTS?
To determine your ancestry, at tellmeGen we use a relevant fraction of the data obtained in your genotyping corresponding to the autosomal DNA, which contains your genetic inheritance from both paternal and maternal sides. Once identified, this portion of your genetic variation is compared to thousands of individuals distributed in 70 ethnic groups. The database we use has been generated from public databases of the human variability: 1000 Genomes Project and the Human Genome Diversity Project.
In general, we study certain patterns of your genetic variation and compare them with a database of people with a known ethnic/geographical origin in order to infer your ancestry composition.
HOW DOES ANCESTRY WORK?
At tellmeGen we use the Admixture program to determine your ancestry from a reference database of individuals of known ethnic/geographical origin.
The tellmeGen database, currently has over 2,700 individuals belonging to 48 ethnic groups spread across 8 broad geographical areas: Europe (9); Africa (10); Middle East (3); Central Asia (2); South Asia (9); East Asia (8); Oceania (1); America (6).
The association between each ethnic group that makes up the database and its origin allows us to assign a possible geographical origin to your genetic composition.
The samples sorting that make up the database has been made following a rigorous quality control to ensure the highest precision in the allocation of your ancestral components.
WHAT TO EXPECT FROM MY ANCESTRY RESULT?
What you see in your ancestry report is the assignment, expressed as a percentage, of your genetic composition in the different ethnic groups considered herein, organized by their geographical locations. Therefore, these values are, to a greater or lesser extent, the reflection of the ethnic origin of your ancestors.
Although our database has ethnic groups distributed throughout the world, there are many populations that are not represented. In general, it is true that those populations that are geographically closer present, at the same time, greater genetic affinities. If you have a known ancestry in some population not represented in our database, what you will observe in the report is that the assignment of your genetic composition has been distributed among those ethnic groups represented that are geographically closer.
ANCESTRY… WHAT IS NEXT?
The determination of your ethnicity is the beta version of the applications that we are developing to give you the maximum amount of information about your ancestry from your genetic material. We will continuously improve the existing databases to include new ethnic groups from unrepresented geographical areas, which will allow us to improve the extent and accuracy of the analysis of the origin of your ancestors.
NEXT VERSIONS OF MY ANCESTRY RESULTS WILL INCLUDE…
- Analysis of Neanderthal ancestry: it is known that there was inbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals at different times in our history. We will estimate the amount of Neanderthal genetic material present at your genetic composition, derived from those inbreeding processes.
- Mitochondrial DNA analysis: mitochondrial DNA is transmitted from mothers to their offsprings. Therefore, by studying the genetic variation of the genetic material present in the mitochondria it is possible to infer, in both men and women, their maternal lineage. Maternal lineages, called haplogroups, have a high geographic specificity, which is why they are widely used in population genetics studies as well as in genealogical analyses.
- Y-chromosome analysis: the Y-chromosome is transmitted, exclusively, from fathers to their male children. By studying the genetic variation of the Y-chromosome, it is possible to infer paternal lineages. Paternal lineages, also called haplogroups, have a high geographic specificity and are therefore widely used in population genetics studies. Because of its special type of inheritance, similar to the transmission of surnames in many human cultures, it has been used in genealogical analyses.
The scientific team at tellmeGen continues to work to offer you the best possible information about your ancestry.
The Swedes are a Native Germanic ethnic group in eastern Scandinavian and adjacent islands. The population of Swedes is 14 million people of which 8 million reside in Sweden. There is a wide population diaspora, being found in other Nordic countries such as Finland and also in the United States (more than 4 million), Canada or Argentina.
We have always thought of the Finnish population being limited to only being found in Finland but now and days these ethnic group is not limited just to this Northern European country. The term Finnish not only represents Finland, but it also includes populations from Sweden, such as the Tornedalians; Norway, towns like Kyven or Forest; and also, Russia, towns like the Ingrian.
There are approximately 7 million of Finnish in existence today, not only counting the people that reside within the country, but also everyone that´s descendant from them. Most of the population is found in Finland and it´s neighboring countries such as Sweden, Norway, and Russia but due to the migration of people you can also find Finnish descendants in Countries like the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil and Argentina.
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The term British refers to a group of people that originated from the United Kingdom, a country situated in the British Isles found in the northeast region of Europe. The British population are descendant from various ethnic groups that were established in the British Isles for a thousand of decades.
Thanks to genetic analyzes performed on old samples, it has been shown that prehistoric native populations suffered a series of demographic events that led to their almost total substitution. The replacement of the Mesolithic populations took place around the year 6,000 BC. with the arrival of Neolithic farmer populations. In addition to their prehistoric roots, it is known that modern Britons are descendants of various ethnic groups that settled, at different times, in the British Isles such as: Celts, Anglo-Saxons and Vikings and Normans.
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The Russian population can be found in the Eastern Slavic Ethnic group. Although Russians are mostly present in Eastern Europe - Russia, they can also be found in neighboring countries. People that come from Russia are considered to come from one of the largest Ethnic groups in Europe and one of the most populated country in the world. Knowing this, out of the total 160 million people who are Russian descendant only about 14 million of them are currently living in Russia. The rest of the population can be found in North America and Western Europe, making this about 3 million people. The Russian are considered Eastern Slavic Ethnic.
According to most ethnologists, the first Russians were descendant of the Rus town. It´s believe that most of these towns were developed in the currently Ukrainians and Belarussians regions. Other researchers believe that Russians were a mixture of different Eastern Slavic and even non-Slavic (Germanic or Baltic) tribes. However, the origin of Slavic populations remains unclear today.
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Ukrainians or Ukraine’s are an eastern Slavic ethnic group native to present-day Ukraine. Ukrainians are descendants of several peoples who inhabited the area from the northern Black Sea to the borders of Russia, Poland, Moldova, Belarus and Slovakia. In turn, Ukrainians can be divided into subgroups such as the Zakarpattia or the Halychyna.
Its language is Ukrainian, an Eastern Slavic language of Indo-European origin. The population of Ukrainians is estimated to be 45 million people of which more than 80% reside in Ukraine. The rest are widely distributed and can be found in European countries such as Russia, Germany or Italy, or in others such as Canada, Brazil or the US, where an estimated 1.1 million Ukrainians reside. The Ukrainians are predominantly Orthodox Christians, although many are atheists or agnostics. Ukrainian history is marked by the Holodomor or Ukrainian genocide, a name attributed to the famine promoted by the Soviet regime and which ravaged the territory or the Socialist Republic of Ukraine during the years 1932-1933, starving nearly 10 million people.
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The French people are an ethnic group belonging to the Group or Romance-speaking populations originating in present-day France. Historically, the French people have predominantly Gallic or Celtic, Latin and Germanic origins, but also with influences from the Basque, Iberian, Italic or Greek peoples, among others. France has long been a mosaic of local customs and regional differences that is reflected in the language. Although most of them speak French, a language belonging to the family of Indo-European languages, others such as occitano, Catalan, Corsican, Basque or Alsatian are spoken in their respective regions.
The French population is estimated at around 95 million people. Of these, some 67 million reside in France, but can also be found widely distributed in other countries such as the United States, Algeria, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Germany or Morocco, among many others. Most of the French people belong to the Catholic Church, although Protestant, Jewish or Muslim representatives can also be found, as well as atheists or agnostics.
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The term French Basque refers to the group of people originating in northern Spain and southwest of France, located on both sides of the western Pyrenees. The origin of the Basque has given rise to many theories, some of which trace their origins to the first paleolithic settlers of Europe. In this sense, they have been related to other European and Mediterranean populations such as the Iberians, Picts, Irish, Welsh, Berbers or Etruscans.
The Basques are characterized by the Basque language that is not related to any of the Indo-European languages. Thanks to numerous genetic studies, it is thought that the Basques are a remnant of the first inhabitants of Western Europe; specifically, those of the Franco-Cantabrian region, which mixed with the first groups of Neolithic farmers arriving in the Iberian Peninsula.
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It refers to the Ashkenazi Jews descendants of the Jews who settled in Central and Eastern Europe during medieval times, mainly in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine and Romania, among others. They developed particular customs and laws that differentiate them from other Jewish peoples, such as their own language, Yiddish that combine terms from German dialects along with some of Slavic or Hebrew origin.
The Ashkenazi population is estimated at 11.2 million people and some researchers indicate that they account for 70% of the world's Jewish population. They have a wide diaspora, being more importantly found in the United States (5-6 million people) and Israel (2.8 million), but also in Russia, Argentina, United Kingdom, Canada, etc.
Its history is marked by the Nazi Holocaust during World War II, in which two-thirds of the Ashkenazi Jews were killed, also causing mass migration to other regions.
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The Iberian population originated in the Iberian Peninsula, in the southwest of Europe. This includes the countries of Andorra, Portugal and Spain. Although the term Iberian has been used to identify all the inhabitants of the peninsula, there is another more restricted ethnic sense that identifies them as the ethical group that occupied the eastern and southern Iberian Peninsula. These people, defined by Greeks and Romans, were influenced by other Mediterranean towns such as the Phoenicians or the Greek mimes.
It is known that the first settlers arrived in the Iberian Peninsula more than 40,000 years ago from southern France. The Iberian Peninsula has been a crossroads for many ethnic groups in the Mediterranean, Central and Eastern Europe throughout history. This, today, is reflected in the great cultural diversity of their current populations. In addition, due to the role played by Spain and Portugal, a large proportion of inhabitants of from South America are descendants of the Iberian population. This occur during the late fifteenth century which was at the time of the discoveries and subsequent colonization of the Americas.
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The Italian population originally comes from the Italia peninsula, situated in the south of Europe occupying a vast position in the center of the Mediterranean.
The Italian population is estimated to have about 55 million inhabitants. Between the late nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries, there was a massive movement of Italians to different areas around the world. This was known as the ¨Italian diaspora¨. It is estimated that today more 80 million people around the world have a direct or partial Italian ancestry.
Italy is the cradle of the Roman Empire, it dominated all of Western Europe and the Mediterranean area since its beginning in the 8th century B.C. until its disappearance in the 5th century. This period left an indelible footprint in the image of Western civilization that is known today. At the genetic level, current Italians have genetic differences between their populations from the north and the south. The southern Italians are closer to the Mediterranean populations like the Greeks, while the northern Italians are closer to the Iberians and French of the south today.
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Sardinian was a term used to describe the inhabitants of the Italian island of Sardinia in the Western Mediterranean. Researchers think that the first inhabitants of Sardinia arrived from the Iberian Peninsula and the Italian Peninsula. However, as it is with other isolated populations, current Sardines differ significantly from other European populations. Different investigations have shown how the Sardinian population show a clear genetic differentiation with respect to the rest of the populations in their geographical environment since its presents genetic variants are considered rare at high frequencies.
Recent studies on the origin of the Sardinian population based on their genetic makeup have shown that this ethnic group was closest to the first Neolithic populations for more than 10,000 years ago, this is where the near east populated Europe displacing the Paleolithic populations proceeded from.
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The Croats are a southern Slavic people settled in the Balkans, mainly in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, where they are one of the country's three constituent nations alongside Bosnians and Serbs. They are also considered ethnic minority in countries such as Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary or Italy. There is also a notable Croatian community outside Europe, as in Chile, the United States, Argentina or Brazil.
The official language of Croatians is the Croatian dialect, one of the varieties of standard Serbo-Croatian, of the family of Indo-European languages. The Croatian population is estimated to be 10.1 million of the 4 million residing in Croatia, making up 90% of the country's total population. The Croats belong mainly to the Roman Catholic Church. The area populated by the Croats has a great diversity of historical and cultural influences, as well as diversity of terrain and geography. For example, the central regions of Croatia were battle scenarios against the Ottoman Empire so they have strong epic traditions.
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The Greeks or Helens are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and some other regions around the Aegean and Ionian seas. As a result of their enormous historical expansion, they constitute a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. In ancient times, the Greeks organized the status of city-states where the concept of democracy originated. Its main language is the Greek language, spoken since the time of Ancient Greece. It is an Indo-European language that is a branch in itself and is closely related to Armenian and Indo-Iranian languages. Currently, ethnic Greeks make up 93% of Greece's population, and 78% of the island of Cyprus.
Today it is estimated that the population of ethnic Greeks amounts to between 14 and 17 million people, although determining the total number of Greeks who live today outside the Greek and Cypriot states is not an easy task due to the wide distribution of the population. This ethnic group is credited with very notable contributions to the field of universal culture, such as the first alphabet or important foundations in the field of philosophy.
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CAUCASUS & CENTRAL ASIA
Found in the northern Caucasus part of Russia, the Adigues group makes reference to the ethnic origin of the Republic of Adigueya. The Adigues group is one of the circasianas tribes that historically occupied all of the northwest region of the Caucasus. The people of Adigue spoke the accidental Adigue or Circassian language which belonged to the family of the North-West Caucasian languages.
It´s been estimated that the population of the Adigues summed up to 125.000 people, most of which were located in the Republic of Adigueya; 25% of the population were found here. Other important communities were found in Turkey, Jordan, and Syria. History has shown that the Adigues population was determined by the Russian-Circasiana War that occur during the XVIII and XIX centuries making huge population geographical movements in the region.
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Armenians are an ethnic group originating in the Near East, specifically the Caucasus region and the Armenian plateau, and now known as Armenia. The population of Armenians is estimated to number around 8 million people, the vast majority of which are in Armenia. They have a large diaspora of more than 5 million people and can be found in Russia, the United States or France, among many others.
Its official language is Armenian, belonging to the family of Indo-European languages and using its own alphabet. Armenian has two standardized forms, the East Armenian, the most widely spoken, and the western. Most Armenians belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church. The history of the Armenians is marked by the Armenian genocide that resulted in the extermination and expulsion of 1.5 million Armenians by the Ottoman government in the period between 1914 and 1923.
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The Georgian or Kartvelian people are a Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia and the South Caucasus. The first evidence described by anthropologists of the existence of this population dates back to the Neolithic period and historians refer to them as Proto-Kartvelian tribes.
Although the Georgian population resides mainly in Georgia, a sovereign country of Eastern Europe, they can be widely distributed throughout Russia, Turkey, Greece, Iran, Ukraine and the United States, among others. The population is estimated at 4 million people, some 3.2 million of them in Georgia. Its language is Georgian, belonging to the family of Kartvellian languages, with its own alphabet.
Today, most Georgians are Orthodox Christians, although there is also a small Muslim population.
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Uzbeks are an ethnic group of Turkic origin that live mainly in Uzbekistan, but are also in the case of countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia and the Sinkiang Autonomous Region of China. Small groups scattered in Iran, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the United States or Eastern Europe can also be found. Sand estimates that the population of Uzbeks amounts to 35 million people, of which almost 80% reside in Uzbekistan.
Uzbek is the official language of this population, a language of Persian origin with important Persian and Russian influence. In addition to this, the Uzbeks also speak Russian.
History is marked by Uzbekistan's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and by the Soviet-Afghan war that forced 70,000 Uzbeks to emigrate to Pakistan. Today, the vast majority of Uzbeks are Sunni Muslims.
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The Hazaras people are an ethnic people from central Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. Its language is Hazaras, a dialect of the Persian language that differs from this by a greater presence of Turkish and Mongoose vocabulary.
They are indigenous populations that have probably suffered mixtures with Turks and Mongols. They are the third largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, reaching 4 million people, however, there are also some large groups in Iran and even Canada.
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The Uighur people are an ethnic group mainly native to Sinkiang Province in northwestern China, but is also found to a lesser extent in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. They have their own language and their writing is more like Arabic than Chinese.
The Uighurs men usually wear jackets that do not wear buttons, while women wear colorful dresses. The young women comb their hair with small braids and when they get married, they comb their hair with two braids. They also wear many bracelets, necklaces and other ornaments. They are famous for mastering the dance, with dances of very vivid rhythms in which they place their arms on the head.
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NORTH AFRICA & MIDDLE EAST
The Moroccan people are a Maghreb ethnic group originally from Morocco. Most Moroccans are of Arab-Berber origin. Its population is estimated at 42 million people out of 36 living in Morocco. The rest, constitute the Moroccan diaspora mainly developed by Europe in countries such as Spain, France, Israel, Italy or Belgium, among others. Although in smaller numbers, representatives can also be found in the United States, Canada or Australia.
The language predominantly spoken by Moroccans is Arabic, belonging to the family of Afro-Asian languages, specifically Arabic, characterized by the use of the Arabic alphabet.
Moroccan history and culture have a great influence today in Europe in many fields ranging from architecture to agriculture to cooking. The vast majority of Moroccans belong to Islam.
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The Mozabite people refer to the Algerian ethnic group originating in northern Sahara. It is a Berber group with its own language, the mozabito, although today most speak Arabic. An estimated Mozabite language speaker of around 150,000 people.
The Mozabite people are descendants of the so-called Kharijism, former inhabitants of the Mzabregion, a world heritage site. The Mozabite people arrived in Mzab in the 10th century from the ancient kingdom of Tiaert from where it was expelled by the Fatimids. The Mozabite people are used to living in harsh environmental conditions, typical of the desert. In its genetic composition we find a high number of North African haplogroups.
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The Egyptians are an ethnic group native to the Nile Valley, a small strip of arable land that stretches from the First Falls to the Mediterranean and is surrounded by desert. This unique geography has been the basis of the development of Egyptian society since ancient times. Egypt's history is long and rich. Much of the oldest history was a mystery until the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics were deciphered after the discovery of the Rosetta stone. As a result of this history, today we have monuments such as the Pyramid of Giza or the legacy left by the library of Alexandria.
The population of Egyptians is estimated to number more than 100 million people, the vast majority of which are in Egypt. Descendants can also be found in other countries such as Saudi Arabia, the United States, Libya and the United Arab Emirates, among others. Its official and more spoken language is Egyptian Arabic belonging to the Family of Arabic languages, although they can speak other languages such as The Nubian, a Berber language.
Most Egyptians belong to Islam, although a Christian minority can also be found.
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The Turkish people, also well known as the Anatolian people, are an ethnic group of Turkic origin originating in present-day Turkey. The Turks arrived from Central Asia and western China and settled in the Anatolian Basin around the 11th century, mixing with existing people. As a result, the region began to transform from a predominantly Christian society to a Muslim society.
The Turkish population is estimated to number 75 million of those residing in Turkey, even if they have an important diaspora present in the ancient lands of the Ottoman Empire and Western Europe, with significant representation in Germany.
His language is Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language. Turks are predominantly Muslims.
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The name Bedouins is attributed to the nomadic Arab population that inhabits the deserts of Israel, Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Syria, Jordan and Iraq. Its origin is established in the Arabian Peninsula, although during the Arab conquests of the 7th century they expanded widely throughout North Africa. The Bedouin population is estimated to number more than 9 million people who, due to its nomadic character and history, are widely distributed, finding representatives in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Israel or Jordan, among many others.
Today's Bedouins are generally organized into tribes and their majority language is the badw, or Bedawi, a language of Afro-Asian origin widely spoken in the vicinity of the Red Sea. Its economy focuses on livestock and organizes its life around this activity. They move constantly in search of water and pastures. As for their religion, they are predominantly Sunni Muslims.
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The Druze People is a religious minority native mainly to Israel, Jordan, Syria or Lebanon. There are around one million Druze grouped together in these countries, although there are some minorities in other areas. They define themselves as monotheists.
Its origin dates back to the 10th and 11th centuries when the Persian Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad founded his religion. They keep a large part of the details of their religion secret and do not accept conversions. This religious suspicion is believed to be due to the persecutions they suffered for centuries.
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The Palestinian people are an ethnic group of Semitic origins from the Mediterranean east with origins in the historical region of Palestine and now culturally and linguistically Arab. The Palestinian population is estimated to be around 13 million people, about half of them still living in historic Palestine, the area spanning the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and Israel. Of the Palestinian population living abroad, more than half are stateless and lack citizenship in any country. Of these, more than 4.5 million reside in Jordan, Saria, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia. The largest concentration outside the Middle East is in Chile.
The history of the Palestinian people is marked by the Arab-Israeli war of 1948 and the Israeli occupation of Palestine after the Six-Day War and 1967. Most Palestinians are Sunni Muslims. Their language is Palestinian Arabic although many of them also speak Hebrew.
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The Qatari are an ethnic group native to the Arabian Peninsula, descendants of the Arab tribes that came to Qatar in the 18th century from the neighboring areas of Najd and Al-Hasa. A lot of them are descendants of the Oman tribes. The Qatari can, in turn, be classified into three subgroups: Bedouins, Hadar and Afro-Arabs.
Today, the Qatari population is estimated to number about 2.6 million people, living almost exclusively in the Qatari peninsula. Of these, 92% reside in Doha, their capital. The Qatari are mainly Sunni Muslims, with Islam being their official religion. A minority of the population is Hindu.
Its official language is Arabic, belonging to Arabic languages, although English is also widely spoken.
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Mizrahi Jews are descendants of Jewish communities in the Middle East and North Africa. Etymologically, Mizrahi means "eastern". Today's Mizrahi are a heterogeneous population, including the descendants of Babylonian Jews from modern Iraq and Kurdistan, Syrian Jews, Yemeni Jews, Georgian Jews, Dagestan and Azerbaijan Mountain Jews, Persian Jews from Iran, and Bukhara Jews from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. It also applies to the descendants of Maghreb and Sephardic Jews. In many cases the term "Sephardic" is used to also include the Mizrahi, especially in Israel.
The population is estimated at 4.6 million people. Most of them are in Israel, and representatives can also be found in other countries such as Iran, Kazakhstan, Uzbek, or the United States.
Because of their heterogeneous character, The Mizrahi speak different languages. The most important are the Hebrew and Judeo-Arabic languages, both derived from the Afro-Asian languages. His religion is Judaism.
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The Aka tribe are a pygmy people of hunter-gatherers originally from Central Africa, specifically the Central African Republic. They are aka a people who live slightly subordinate to the peasants of Ngando and speak, like them, the Bantu language.
They have a curious musical culture that has influenced many composers around the world. His vocal music is very characteristic of this town and his polyphony and instruments have been studied on numerous occasions by various ethnomusicologists. In fact the aka oral tradition was proclaimed by UNESCO as a Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
As if that were not enough, they are considered some of the best parents in the world, since they have their children in their arms no less than 47% of the time.
At the genetic level it is known that the populations of African pygmies are differentiated from the rest of African populations, it is believed that the ancestors of the pygmies were separated from the other groups about 60 thousand years ago.
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The Mbuti People are originally from the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is an ethnic group composed mainly of hunter-gatherers. It is one of the oldest villages in the area. It is believed that the Egyptians already referred to this people who they called "people of the trees". They are organized in small groups (from 15 to 60 people). In total, few are members of this ethnic group, which does not exceed 50,000 individuals.
This ethnic group stays away from modern influence while maintaining a traditional lifestyle based on hunting and harvesting Congo's forests. Due to the civil war, many of them ended up emigrating to the most modern peoples. Within this society, roles are divided according to the age of the individual and not their family or genealogical kinship, neither of its gender.
At the genetic level it is known that the populations of African pygmies are differentiated from the rest of African populations, it is believed that the ancestors of the pygmies were separated from the other groups about 60 thousand years ago.
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The Bushmen, also known as San, are an African people of heterogeneous origin, native to present-day Namibia. The word "Bush" derives from the Afrikaans boschjesman "forest man". Due to their heterogeneous character, they are considered not to constitute a group but several, with a long history. Studies show that, genetically, they are similar to the first humans who left Africa and colonized the rest of the world. According to the latest estimates, the population is around 95,000 people in Namibia, Botswana, Angola, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
It is a hunter-gatherer village. They speak some of the Joisan languages that are a group of African languages characterized by the use of clicks. Specifically, 70% of words start with these clicks. Much is known about their way of life because they have been one of the most studied peoples, highlighting that they have survived through hunting and fruit harvesting and that women occupy a high status in society, enjoying great respect.
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The term Bantu refers to any individual belonging to the more than 400 ethnic groups of the Melan-African peoples living south of the line from Cameroon to the mouth of the Yuba. Due to their heterogeneous character, the Bantu are divided into subgroups such as fang, bakuba, baluba or lingala, among others. The Bantu population makes up 30% of the African population and 5% of the world's population. The largest groups of Bantu reach the several million people, i.e., the Shona of Zimbabwe (12 million), the Zulude South Africa (12 million), the Luba of Congo (7 million), the Sukuma of Tanzania (9 million) or the Kikuyu of Kenya (7 million).
Members of this group speak the Bantu languages of the Niger-Congo family. The most spoken Bantu language is Swahili. Their beliefs are, for the most part, animist, a concept that encompasses various beliefs in which both objects and elements of the natural world are endowed with life, soul or own consciousness. Christianized or Islamized groups can also be found.
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Ethiopians are a people originally from present-day Ethiopia. They are characterized by their diversity, with different languages and ethnic subgroups. Within its population, the Oromo, Amhara, Somalis and Trojans represent more than three-quarters of the population, although more than 80 different ethnic groups can be identified, some of them with so many members.
The Ethiopian population is estimated to be around 107 million people, the vast majority of which are in Ethiopia, although representatives can be found in countries such as the United States, Israel, the United Arab Emirates, Lebanon, Italy or the United Kingdom. Most of its people speak the Ethiopian languages, belonging to the Semitic Afro-Asian language group, although English is the most widely spoken external language. As for their religion, the population is also heterogeneous. Most of them are Orthodox, followed by Muslims, Protestants and Christians.
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The Bantu people refer to the ethnic group originating in South Africa. This ethnic group is native to Central Africa and although it does not compose a uniform culture they are characterized by some of the Bantu languages. The Bantu are divided into four large majority groups that in turn are subdivided into other groups such as the bakongo, the fang, the Zulus, among many others.
The Bantu peoples are very numerous, more than 350 million, their large extent is due to a historical process that is known as Bantu expansion, whose origin is centered in Central-West Africa and which was expanding to the east and south of the continent. This was a process that lasted more than a thousand years, since 500 A.D.
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The Mandinga or mandinka are an ethnic group from West Africa native to The Gambia. There are currently about 13 million Mandinkas residing in different West African countries in countries such as Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast.
The Mandinka population speaks the Commandian languages, belonging to the languages of the Niger-Congo family, although they can also speak Portuguese, French or English, depending on the region. The Mandinka people have in their history the foundation of the mayor of the ancient empires of the west Of Africa, the Malian Empire. They are predominantly Muslim, although very few dress Arabic-style and few women wear veils.
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The Esan people are an ethnic group native to southern Nigeria. They inhabit the cultural region of Esanland, which was organized during the 15th century when citizens, mostly nobles and princes, left the neighboring Benin Empire to the northeast and where they formed communities and kingdoms. These kingdoms often fought each other, though, despite that, they maintained a homogeneous culture.
The population of the Esan people is estimated at 1.5 million people, although they also represent a wide range of people. Its main language is Esan, from the family of the Niger-Congo languages and which encompasses several dialects.
They are traditionally farmers and hunters and practice traditional medicine. As for their religion, 95% of them are Christians.
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The Mandinka people are an ethnic group belonging to the linguistic family of the Mende peoples, originally from West Africa.
The Mandinkas today are a predominantly Muslim people, are descendants of the ancient Malian Empire, one of the greatest empires of West Africa, which makes this ethnic group very heterogeneous. So much so that the bonds that bind the sentencing together are more cultural than ethnic. The Mandinka Empire spread on the basis of trade and conquest, however, today most are farmers, fishermen, ranchers, etc.
Traditionally its social structure has always been aristocratic, that is, structuring in nobles and vassals and also slaves.
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The Mende people refer to the ethnic group originating in Sierra Leone. The Mende ethnic group accounts for around 30% of Sierra Leone's approximately 7 million people at the demographic level. The population of Mende is mainly located in the southern and eastern provinces of the country.
It is the majority subgroup of the Mandinka people, who live throughout West Africa. It is a town mostly dedicated to agriculture and hunting. As a result of numerous war conflicts, during the nineteenth century, a large number of Mende were captured and taken as slaves to different zones of the new world such as Cuba or the United States.
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SOUTH OF ASIA
The Pashtun People are an ethno linguistic group located basically in eastern and southern Afghanistan, in the Pakistani provinces of Northwest Frontier, Balochistan and federally administered tribal areas.
In general, Pashtuns are characterized by their own language and observance of both Pashtunwali (a pre-Islamic religious and cultural honor code) and Islamism.
Often characterized as a warrior people, its history spreads among the various countries of South Asia, Central and West Asia, centered on its traditional headquarters in Medieval Afghanistan. During the era of the Sultanate of Delhi, the Pashtun Lodi dynasty replaced the Ottoman kingdoms, like the reigning dynasty in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. Other Pashtuns fought the Persian Empire and the Mughal Empire before becoming an independent state in the early 18th century, before becoming part of Afghanistan.
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The Sindhi people are an ethnic group originating in the Pakistani province of Sind, located in the southeastern part of the country. Sindhis are also found in the Kutch region, in the northwestern state of Gujarat, and in the Ulhasnagar region, in the Occidental state of Maharashtra, both in India. The Sindhi language belongs to the Indo-Iranian family of languages.
The Sindhi people and the region they inhabit are named after the Sindhu River (Indo). In this sense, the Hindi and Hindu terms also derive from the words sindh or sindhu, by the pronunciation of the ancient Persians.
From the 19th century to the present day there has been a great migration movement of the Sindhi people from Pakistan and India, mainly to Europe, the United States and Canada. It also has a large Sindhi community in the countries of the Near East.
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The Baloch people belong to the group of Iranian tribes of Pakistan who speak the Baluchi language, the northwestern Iranian language and one of the 9 official languages of the country. They are native to the Pakistani province of Balochistan, as well as being found in some neighboring areas of other countries such as Iran, Bahrain or Afghanistan. The Balochi inhabit mainly mountainous terrain, which have allowed them to maintain a distinctive cultural identity and resist domination by neighboring villages. The Baloch are mostly Muslim, most of them are Sunni, but there are also a significant number belonging to The Shiites in Baluchistan. About 70% of the total population of the Baloch people lives in Pakistan. About 25% is found in the contiguous region of southeastern Iran. Pakistan's Baloch population is estimated at around 8,800,000 people.
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The Makrani people refer to the descendants of the Baloch of the Makran rule in Balochistan, who passed as mercenaries to the Saurastra region within the present Indian state of Gujarat where they continue to live today.
Most Makranis today speak the Gujarati language belonging to the Indo-Iranian family of languages.
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The Brahui people are originally from the central region of Pakistan's Balochistan Province, although they are also found to a lesser extent in neighboring regions of Afghanistan. The Brahuis speak the Dravidian Brahui language, being the only Dravidic-speaking population outside the territory of India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
Despite having customs similar to those of their baloch are dictated by these because they look similar to that of other populations of the India being with a shade of darker skin. Some hypotheses place them in the area where they currently live in a time before the invasions of Indo-European population that took place from 500 B.C. While other theories point to more or less ancient migrations from India to explain the origin of the Brahui people.
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The Burusho People is an ethnic group native to present-day Pakistan. Burusho live mainly in three valleys in the mountainous region of far north Pakistan: Hunza, Nagar and Chitral. The bureauchaschian language spoken by Burusho has not been classified within any linguistic family. In this sense, the Burusho people are considered to be a remnant population of the old pre-Indo-European native population, whose territory was located in the Indostan region (Indian subcontinent).
It is estimated that the current population of the Burusho people is around 250,000 inhabitants. The Burusho people is mainly agricultural although they also raise cattle and goats. The society is organized into a system of clans and classes that includes the royal family, state officials, prominent men of each population, warriors, employees and musicians.
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The Kalash people are an ethnic group that inhabits the present northern borders of Pakistan, in the Rukmu, Mumret and Biriut valleys belonging to the Hindukush mountain range. It is an Indo-European people who are credited with a possible Hellenic origin or another nearby proto-Indo-European branch.
According to other researchers, the Kalash people would be descended from an ancient people who inhabited central Europe around 1,000 B.C. before the arrival of the Indo-European peoples and which spread throughout Asia, along the Silk Road, and which would have as modern descendants to the Hungarian nation, who migrated from Central Asia to Europe around 1,000 A.D. This theory is solidly supported by the similarities between Kalash's art and religious symbology and that found in Central Asia, as well as findings in Central Europe dating back to before 1,000 B.C.
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The Telugu people are an ethnic group at the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent, south of the Narmada and Mahanadi rivers. This region consists mainly of the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. The population of these states is more than 230 million inhabitants, that is about 20% of the population of the country. Tamils in Sri Lanka, where they make up about 17% of the population, must also be taken into account.
The Telugus speak the Telugu language that belongs to the Dravidic languages, spoken by more than 200 million people in the Indian subcontinent. The main language of this group is precisely that spoken by the Telugu with around 80 million speakers. In addition to their language, Dravidic peoples are distinguished from other inhabitants of India by their physique, as they generally present a short stature and dark brown skin.
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Gujarati are an ethnic group that traditionally inhabits the state of Gujarat, which is located in southwestern India, bordering Pakistan to the north with the state of Rajasthan, to the east by Madhya Pradesh state, to the southeast by Maharashtra state and to the west by the Arabian Sea. The Gujaratis speak the Gujarati language which is one of the Indo-Indian languages spoken in the Indian subcontinent.
The state of Gujarat has more than 60 million inhabitants, which makes it the ninth most populous state in India. Since becoming a state on May 1, 1960, Gujarat is one of India's most economically growing areas. Two of India's leading independence leaders were born in this state: Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
In addition, the Gujarati are a village with a great seafaring tradition and a history of migrations to different territories, mainly on the shores of the Arabian Sea with which it shares the same mercantile culture. Gujaratis are considered to represent around 30% of migrations from Indian populations. Currently the main Gujaratis colonies by number of inhabitants are in Pakistan, United Kingdom, United States, Canada as well as several countries of East and South Africa.
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The Tamil People is an ethnic group native to India and Sri Lanka. In India they are located in the state of Tamil Nandu, located at its southern end, while in Sri Lanka they settle in the northeastern region. The history of Tamils and their Tamil language goes back to 2,000 years ago. It currently has more than 70 million speakers, most of India (up to 60 million) and the rest mostly distributed in Sri Lanka and Malaysia. The Tamil language is considered the second Dravidic language in number of speakers.
There are numerous Tamil groups spread across countries such as Canada, the United Kingdom, Singapore, in three others. The Tamil people are mostly Hindu, however, some groups profess other types of religions such as Muslim, Buddhist or Christian.
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Bengalis are one of the Indo-Indian ethnic groups native to the Bengal region of South Asia and divided between Bangladesh and India. Their language is Bengali, a language of the family of Indo-European languages.
The Bengali region is estimated to be the 260 million people of which about 163 million live in Bangladesh, and can also be found in other regions such as India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom or Qatar. The Bengali present, after the Chinese and Arabs, the third human ethnic group by population.
Within the population you can find four different religious subgroups: Muslims, representing the majority, Hindus, Christians and Buddhists.
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The Nakhi people are ethnic groups native to the southeastern Chinese provinces of Yunnan and Sichuan that inhabit the regions at the foothills of Himalaya. Today the Nakhi people have an estimated population of 300,000 people. The Nakhi language spoken by the Nakhi people belongs to the Sino-Tibetan family of languages.
The most remote origins of the Nakhi ethnic group are believed to be in the northeast of China, from which different population groups moved south to settle on the Tibetan plateau. But specifically, the Nakhi people would be descendants of a nomadic people of this region that would also give rise to other ethnic groups such as the Qiang people or the Yi people. The Nakhi people would settle in their present territory at the beginning of the 1st century. Although, until recent times, members of the Nakhi ethnic group maintained close relations with other Tibetan peoples.
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The Yi people are an ethnic group originating in the Chinese provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi where they generally occupy the rural areas of mountainous areas. The population of the Yi people is estimated at around 9 million in China. In addition, there are groups of people of the Yi ethnic group in neighboring Vietnam, Thailand and Laos that have few thousand inhabitants. The Yi language spoken by the Yi people belongs to the Sino-Tibetan family of languages.
The most remote origins of the Yi ethnic group are believed to be in northwestern China, from which different population groups moved south to settle on the Tibetan plateau. But specifically, the Nakhi people would be descendants of a nomadic people of this region that would also give rise to other ethnic groups such as the Qiang people or the Yi people.
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The Tu people are the ethnic group originating in Qinghai and Gansu provinces in northwestern China. Today the village has about 300,000 inhabitants. The ethnicity is characterized by the Mongur language that belongs to the linguistic family of the Mongolic languages.
The origin of the people is controversial and there is no unanimity about its origin. Recent genetic studies have revealed some degree of mixing with European populations, similar to nowadays Greeks. These genetic contributions of European origin would have their origin in the caravans of markers that moved along the Silk Road, in historical times.
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The Daur people are ethnic groups native to northwestern China, located in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Heilongjiang Province. The 130,000 people who make up this ethnic group speak the Daur language belonging to the group and the Mongolic languages spoken in the Central Asia.
Genetic studies have pointed to the Daur people as the descendants of the Kitan. The Kitan people were a Proto-Mongolian ethnic group that dominated most of the historical region of Manchuria until the beginning of the 12th century when it was subdued and its population absorbed by different populations of the area.
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The Hezhen people refer to the ethnic group originating in northeastern China. The population of the Hezhen ethnic group, which currently has 18,000 inhabitants, are distributed between Heilongjiang Province in the northeastern part of China, 6,000, and the Russian region of Siberia, 12,000. The Hezhen language belongs to the group of Manchu-Tungu languages within the altaique language family, currently virtually extinct in the Hezhen population of China.
The Hezhen people are descendants of the nomadic people of tartar origin known as nuzhens, which are first integrated with rum in China in the period in the Ming dynasty, between the 14th and 17th centuries.
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The Oroqen people are ethnic groups native to northwestern China, located in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Heilongjiang Province. The Oroqen people are now estimated to have a population of 8,000. The Oroqen language belongs to the Northern Manchus-Tungus family.
The Oroqen people are one of the oldest ethnic groups to inhabit northeastern China. Its origin would be in the Stanovoi Mountains in southern Siberia.
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The Dai people are one of 56 officially recognized ethnic groups in China. Its population, which currently has more than 1 million inhabitants, is located in the extreme southwest of the country, specifically in Yunnan province.
From the point of anthropological purpose, we can’t say that the Dai people as a homogeneous group since it actually encompasses a group of cultural groups with common characteristics. At the linguistic level in the Dai village of Yunnan two dialects stand out: Tai pong and Tai dam. These dialects of the Dai people belong to the tai language group which in turn is a subgroup of the Tai-Kadai family widely spoken in Southeast Asia. In this sense, there are other population groups closely related to the Dai people of Yunnan in neighboring countries such as Laos, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam and India.
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The Miao people refer to a group of ethnic minorities linguistically related native to the mountainous region of southern China, mainly its population are the provinces of Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi, Guangdong and Hainan. The Miaos of southern China now have a population of 9.5 million. There are other Miao population centers in nearby Vietnam and Laos.
Some anthropologists have pointed to the Miaos as one of the first peoples to settle in present-day China, being one of the peoples who first cultivated rice in the area.
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The She People is a native ethnic group of southeastern China located mainly in Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong and Anhui provinces. It currently has about 700 thousand inhabitants. The She language belonging to the Hmong-mien family of languages, located in southern China and Southeast Asia, is in grave danger of detachment as it is barely spoken by 1000 people in Guangdong province.
The She people have been considered to descend from the first settlers of Guangdong Province in Neolithic times, who were subsequently displaced to mountainous regions of the south by the demographic pressure of better-tech northern peoples.
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The Han People have referred to the east ethnic group as well originating from China. It is the largest ethnic group in the world with about 1.2 billion people, representing 92% of China's population and about 18% of the world's population.
The origin of the Han People is found in the confederation of tribes, known as Huaxia, which inhabited along the Yellow River in Neolithic times. 2,000 years ago the culture has expanded from this area to the south absorbing the different ethnic groups in its path. The beginning of this period of expansion began with the historical period of the Han dynasty, which was one of the first great eras in Chinese history and which made it the main regional power of the east as well. At the genetic level there is some stratification between the Han of the north and south, it is considered as a relatively homogeneous population.
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The Japanese people are the ethnic group native to the archipelago of Japan in East Asia, composed of 6852 islands. The Japanese account for almost 98% of Japan's population, which currently has 129 million. In addition, it is estimated that about 4 million Japanese or their descendants live outside Japan, concentrated mainly in Brazil and the United States.
The earliest archaeological evidence of the Japanese archipelago corresponds to groups of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers dating back more than 39,000 years, when there was still a terrestrial connection to the Asian continent. At the ethnographic level, three distinct groups that encompass the Japanese term are distinguished: the Yamatos, Ainus and Ryukyuan. The Yamatos are by far the largest and generally identified group with the Japanese ethnic group.
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The Yakuts people are a Turkic ethnic group originating in the Russian republic of Sakha or Yakutia, located in central Siberia along the arctic coasts. The Yakuts that currently have a population of about 450,000 people, are considered the largest indigenous ethnic group in Siberia, representing approximately 45% of the population of Yakutia. Its main means of subsistence hunting, fishing, as well as breeding horses and livestock.
Although the Yakuts language is a Turkish language, it has great differences with the rest of the linguistic family, known for its geographical separation, as well as by the influences of other neighboring Siberian languages such as the Tungusic and Mongolic languages. In this sense, it is believed that the first Yakuts arrived in the area of present-day Yakutia in the period between the X-XIII centuries, during the expansion of the Turkic peoples, originating in the historical region of Turkestan located in Central Asia.
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The Khmer people are the ethnic group of Cambodia, a country located in Southeast Asia south of the Indochinese Peninsula. Cambodia is considered to be an ethnically homogeneous country as the Khmer people account for more than 90% of its total population, which is around 15 million today.
The Khmer or Cambodian, the majority language of the country, is considered one of the main Australasian languages and has the oldest alphabet still in use in Southeast Asia. It is considered that the Khmer people are originally from southern China, being the first ethnic groups to settle in the area more than 4,000 years ago, where they carried the technique of rice cultivation. In addition, present-day Cambodia is heir to the Khmer Empire that had as its way to the Holy City of Angkor. The Khmer civilization reached its highest dealer between the 9th and 13th centuries of our era leaving a great cultural and archaeological legacy.
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The Kinh people or Vietnamese people refer to the ethnic group of Vietnam in Southeast Asia. The Kinh people account for 86% of Vietnam's population, which currently exceeds 80 million.
The Kinh people speak Vietnamese, a language that belongs to the Family of Austro-Asian languages, originating from the mainland of Southeast Asia, being the most wide spread language within this family. Although due to its geographic and linguistic situation the Kinh people fall within Southeast Asia, due to the historical relations with populations in the south of neighboring China, it has certain traits that frame it within the cultural realm of east Asia. This influence also has its reflection at the genetic level since the Kinh people have an original component of the east as well.
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The Papuan people are the native ethnic group and Papua New Guinea. The country of Papua New Guinea comprises the eastern half of the island of New Guinea, as well as numerous islands that surround it, located in the region known as Melanesia which is in turn part of Oceania.
Despite having only 7 million inhabitants, Papua New Guinea is considered to be one of the countries with the greatest cultural diversity in the world, with more than 1,000 distinct cultural groups highlighting its linguistic richness as more than 800 languages have been counted. Papua New Guinea has been populated since a very remote time, the oldest archaeological remains found in the area date back 60,000 years. Although very little is known about these early settlers of Papua New Guinea it is believed to have come from Southeast Asia. It is known that the descendants of the first settlers have historically occupied the mountainous areas of the country while in coastal areas they are descended from ancient later migrations, originating from Malaysia.
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The Mayan people are originally from the area of Mesoamerica in Central America, this region has been recognized as one of the world cradles of civilization. The Mayan people of Mexico, which currently has about 1.5 million inhabitants, is an indigenous population heir to the ancient Mayan culture, more than 4,000 years old.
The development of Mayan culture highlighted the formation of a complex society in the pre-Columbian American period, which has its reflection in writing and art, where urban development and monumental architecture stand out. During its maximum extent the Mayan civilization occupied an extensive territory that included southeastern Mexico and northern Central America: encompassing the entire Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala and Belize, as well as western Honduras and El Salvador.
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The Pima or Akimel or Odham people are an indigenous group originating in Mexico whose name refers to its origin as "river people". The Pima people of Mexico currently have a few hundred inhabitants whose main occupation is livestock.
According to ethnolinguistic research, the Pima people would have their origins in western Canada from where they descended to their current location in the state of Arizona, in the United States, as well as the two Mexicans from Sonora and Chihuahua. At the genetic level it has been verified that the members of the Pima ethnic group are descendants of the first peoples who arrived in the Americas from the east of Asia, more than 15,000 years ago.
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The people or the Karitiana tribe is an indigenous group whose reserve is located in the state of Rondonia in the west of the Brazilian Amazon. The Karitiana tribe today has only 300 inhabitants who subsist mainly thanks to agriculture, hunting and fishing, with little contact with the outside world.
Recent genetic studies have made the population of the Karitians relevant because of their differences with the rest of the Native American populations, as it has greater affinities with Indigenous Australasian populations (Australia, New Zealand and Melanesia). Scientists have speculated that the Karitiana tribe is descended from the native population of East Asia that resulted, between 15,000-30,000 years ago, on the one hand and the first wave of American settlers on the other.
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The Surui people is an indigenous group located on the border between the states of Rondonia and Mato Gosso in the west of the Brazilian Amazon. The Surui population currently has more than 1,000 inhabitants distributed in 10 villages whose main mode of subsistence is the cultivation of coffee.
Recent genetic studies have made the Surui population relevant because of their differences with the rest of the Native American populations, as it has greater affinities with Australasian indigenous populations (Australia, New Zealand and Melanesia). Scientists have speculated that the Surui people are descended from the native population of East Asia that resulted, between 15,000-30,000 years ago, the Australasian populations on the one hand and the first wave of American settlers on the other.
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The Colombian population refers to the native population of the city of Medellin located in Colombia's Antioquia department. Although 102 indigenous ethnic groups are recognized in Colombia, they represent less than 5% of the total country population, which is around 50 million people.
In general, the Colombian population is of European, African or Asian descent to a greater or lesser extent, the result of the different waves of migration that have taken place from the discovery of America to nowadays. Like other South American populations, at the genetic level in the Colombian population, in addition to the indigenous component, it stands out in the influence of Spanish colonization, as well as a sub-Saharan component caused by the slave trade to the new world.
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The Peruvian population refers to the population group originating in the city of Lima, capital of Peru in the West of South America. At the geographical level, Peru is defined by the presence of the Andes mountain range that runs through the country from north to south, leaving to the west a coastal desert area, while the east of the country is characterized by the Amazon. This multitude of landscapes has led for more than 3,000 years to successive civilizations adapted to its surroundings from which the Inca Empire stands out, which became the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Peru currently has more than 30 million inhabitants, with a great ethnic variety, of which it is estimated that indigenous populations represent about 25% of the total.
Like other South American populations, at the genetic level in the Peruvian population, in addition to the indigenous compass, it stands out to influence the Spanish colonization, as well as a sub-Saharan component caused by the slave trade to the new world.
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