Headaches

It is the most common neurological symptom, with a worldwide prevalence of 50% in adults at least once a year. Headache includes migraine, tension headache and cluster headache, although it can also be secondary if related to another underlying pathology (trauma, infections, etc.). It affects people of all ages, races, income levels and geographic areas equally.

Primary headaches are caused by hyperactivity or disturbances in the pain-sensitive structures of the head. Chemical activity of the brain, the nerves or blood vessels surrounding the skull, or the muscles of the head and neck (or some combination of these factors) may influence their development.

In addition, they can be triggered by lifestyle factors among them:

  • Alcohol, especially red wine.
  • Certain foods, such as processed meats containing nitrates.
  • Sleep changes or lack of sleep.
  • Poor posture.
  • Skipping meals.
  • stress

Symptoms

Headache consists of pain in any region on one or both sides of the head, isolated in a particular location or generalized, radiating through the head from one point, or of visceral quality. It may appear as a sharp pain, a throbbing sensation, or a dull ache. Headaches may develop gradually or suddenly, and may last from less than an hour to several days.

Prevention

Currently there are no measures to prevent the onset of headaches, however, there are several measures that can be taken to reduce and space out the number of outbreaks.

  • Sleep approximately 6 to 8 hours, maintaining a regular schedule both during the working day and on rest days.
  • Eat a balanced diet five times a day on a regular basis. Avoid excessive amounts of sugars, caffeine, alcohol and processed foods, as well as maintaining good hydration.
  • Exercise moderately to reduce stress and stay physically fit. However, excessive, certain types of exercise or inconsistent exercise patterns can be triggers for headaches.
  • Reduce stress, through meditation and other deep relaxation exercises.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

28 loci

Genes analyzed

ARHGAP1 ASXL1 BCAR1 BTN2A2 CAMK1D CDKN2C FGF6 FHL5 FXN GJA1 GPR149 IFT81 IRAG1 LINC02210-CRHR1 MACF1 MEF2D MRPS21 MYO1H NUFIP2 PHACTR1 PLEKHA1 PRDM16 PTBP2 STAT6 TRIM32 TRPM8 TSPAN2 ZCCHC2

Bibliography

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