Inguinal hernia

An inguinal hernia occurs when part of the abdominal contents protrude outward through a hole in the groin area. Seventy-five percent of hernias occur in this region. It is a common condition with a prevalence of 27% in men and 3% in women.

Inguinal hernias occur when part of the abdominal contents protrude through a weak opening in the lower abdomen. Many of these hernias have no apparent cause and others are the result of the following:

  • Increased pressure in the abdomen and/or presence of a weak spot in the abdominal wall.
  • Regular straining with bowel movements or urination
  • High impact activities
  • Pregnancy
  • Chronic coughing and sneezing

In addition, there are certain risk factors that may favor the above causes such as:

  • Sex: men are eight times more likely than women.
  • Age: it is more common at older ages due to the weakening of tissues.
  • Chronic constipation that can lead to a greater effort when evacuating.
  • Premature birth.
  • Personal history of hernia.

Symptoms

An inguinal hernia is not necessarily dangerous. However, if it does not improve on its own, it can lead to life-threatening complications. The most common symptoms include:

  • Presence of a bulge on the sides of the pubis, which becomes more obvious when standing upright or coughing.
  • Burning or aching sensation in the area
  • A sensation of heaviness and weakness in the groin
  • Pain and swelling around the testicles may occur if the protruding part descends into the scrotum.

One of the serious complications of hernias is the strangulation of its contents, which can interrupt blood flow and requires urgent surgery.

Prevention

Inguinal hernia is not entirely preventable, but there are measures that reduce the strain on abdominal tissues and muscles, for example:

  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Eating a diet rich in fiber to help with constipation.
  • Avoid heavy lifting or high impact activity.
  • Avoid smoking, which can lead to chronic coughing and weakening of tissues.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

18 loci

Genes analyzed

ADAT2 BNC2 CRISPLD2 DLEU7 EBF2 EFEMP1 EMX2 LIMK1 LY86 MAP2K4 MSX1 RXFP2 SPSB1 SREK1IP1 VGLL2 WNT5A WT1 ZC3H11B

Bibliography

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