Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in children under 16 years old and a significant cause of childhood morbidity. It causes persistent joint pain, inflammation, and stiffness that can last from months to years.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks joint tissues. The cause of the disease is currently unknown, although it is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Regarding environmental risk factors, the following have been described: infectious and vaccination history, psychological stress, maternal smoking during pregnancy, or trauma, although the evidence is still very limited.

Symptoms

In general, the disease has a slow onset. Symptoms usually begin with occasional limping and morning stiffness that improves throughout the day. As the disease progresses, the affected joints appear swollen, warm to the touch, with limited movement and/or pain on palpation. However, it is important to note that there are several types of JIA with characteristic joint involvement.

In some cases, the onset of JIA is sudden with visceral involvement, causing a general condition that includes high fever, rash, lymph node inflammation, and hepatosplenomegaly, among others.

Prevention

At present, there is no way to prevent the onset of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Once diagnosed, the management of the disease involves a combination of medications and a healthy lifestyle, which includes a balanced diet, healthy exercise, and adequate rest.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

13 loci

Genes analyzed

AHI1 ATP8B2 CCR1 CEP76 ERAP2 FOXP1 IL2RA MFSD6 PHTF1 SH2B3 STAT1 TNFSF11 ZFP36L1

Bibliography

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