Lung cancer

Lung cancer is the neoplasm that originates in lung tissue. It is the most common carcinoma in the world, affecting men and women equally. The main risk factor is tobacco, responsible for 80% of cases. Early diagnosis of lung cancer is the primary determinant of treatment success.

Lung cancer accounts for almost 12% of all carcinomas diagnosed worldwide. The main cause of lung cancer development is smoking. It is estimated that around 80% of cases are caused by smoking habits, with many of the remaining cases caused by exposure to tobacco smoke.

Smoking is undoubtedly the main risk factor for lung cancer, although other contributing factors have also been identified:

  • Time and number of cigarettes. The risk of lung cancer increases with the amount and duration of smoking.
  • Passive exposure to tobacco smoke.
  • Exposure to radon, a radioactive gas that accumulates inside some homes and workplaces. It is estimated to be responsible for between 3-14% of lung cancer cases.
  • Exposure to asbestos.
  • Environmental pollution. Some studies suggest that pollution in large cities may increase the risk of developing lung cancer.

Symptoms

In the early stages, lung cancer usually does not show symptoms. These appear when the cancer is more advanced, making its prognosis poor. The most characteristic signs and symptoms are:

  • Persistent cough with blood.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Chest pain.
  • Hoarseness.
  • Unexplained weight loss.
  • Bone and joint pain.
  • Headache.
  • Swelling in the neck and face.

Prevention

Lung cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Although it cannot be completely prevented, its risk can be effectively reduced through a series of measures.

  • Avoid exposure to tobacco. Not smoking and avoiding exposure to tobacco smoke is the most effective measure to reduce the risk of lung cancer.
  • Avoid exposure to radon or asbestos, chemicals directly related to lung neoplasia.
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle, with a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables and regular physical exercise.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

21 loci

Genes analyzed

AK5 CHRNA5 CLPTM1L CYP21A2 CYP2A6 EPHX2 GABBR1 GTF2H4 H2BC11 H4C8 HLA-DOB MICB MPZL3 PGBD1 PTGFR RAD52 RNASET2 RPP21 SEMA6D SLC17A4 TRIM27 WNK1 ZNF184

Bibliography

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