Open angle glaucoma

It is characterized by a progressive degeneration of the optic nerve, usually accompanied by an increase in intraocular pressure. It is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world, with an estimated overall prevalence of about 2.4%. Its detection in early stages is important to delay or prevent vision loss, since once it occurs it cannot be recovered.

In open-angle glaucoma, as its name indicates, the drainage angle of the intraocular aqueous humor formed by the cornea and the iris remains open, but the drainage system is partially blocked, which causes the ocular pressure to gradually increase and the optic nerve to be damaged. In addition to family history, the following factors would condition an increased risk of developing open-angle glaucoma:

  • Presenting a previous disorder of elevated intraocular pressure.
  • Age: the risk increases with age, especially after 60 years of age.
  • African-American, Asian or Hispanic ancestry has been associated with an increased risk of glaucoma.
  • Certain diseases such as diabetes, heart disease or high blood pressure.
  • Particular eye characteristics such as thin corneas in the center,
  • Eye diseases such as extreme nearsightedness or farsightedness, history of previous eye injury or certain types of eye surgery.
  • Corticosteroid medications over a long period of time, especially eye drops.

Symptoms

In the initial stages it is not associated with symptoms, does not cause pain and vision remains normal. However, if left untreated, progressive loss of lateral or peripheral vision begins in the form of irregular blind spots. Over time, as the pathology progresses, central (forward) vision will also be affected in the form of tunnel vision, decreasing until it is completely lost. This may affect one or both eyes. Intraocular pressure may be normal or high, but it is almost always higher in the eye with the more advanced optic nerve lesion.

Prevention

Early detection of glaucoma can prevent vision loss or slow the rate of progression. Therefore, the following guidelines are recommended:

  • Visit an ophthalmologist from the age of 40 at least once a year to control intraocular pressure and perform a detailed examination of the optic nerve.
  • Regular, moderate physical activity can reduce eye pressure and help prevent glaucoma.
  • Use appropriate eye protection when required in both occupational and leisure settings. Severe eye injuries can promote the development of glaucoma.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

63 loci

Genes analyzed

ABCA1 ABO ADAMTS8 AFAP1 ALCAM ANGPT1 ANKH ANTXR1 ARHGEF12 BICC1 BMP2 C14orf39 CAV1 CCDC91 CDC7 CDH11 CDKN2A CDKN2B CELF2 CHEK2 CTTNBP2 CYP26A1 DGKG ERBB4 ETS1 FBXO32 FGF9 FMNL2 FOXC1 GAS7 GNB1L H1-0 LMO7 LMX1B LOXL1 LPP LTBP2 LYPLAL1 ME3 MEIS1 MTFR2 NAP1L5 NUDT7 PITX2 PKHD1 PLCE1 PLEKHA7 PNPT1 POU6F2 PTHLH RAPSN SCFD2 SEMA3C SH2B3 SIX6 SMIM18 SRR SRSF3 SVEP1 THSD7A TMTC2 TOP2B TSC22D2 UCK2 VCAM1 VPS13C ZNRD2

Bibliography

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