Insomnia

Insomnia refers to a chronic sleep disorder that involves difficulties in falling or staying asleep, and goes beyond sporadic sleep disturbances. This problem can have a significant impact on the quality of life and daily functioning of those who suffer from it. In fact, it is estimated that about one third of the general population has experienced insomnia at some point in their lives.

Insomnia refers to a sleep disorder that encompasses a variety of difficulties related to the quality and quantity of nighttime rest. Affected individuals may experience problems falling asleep at the beginning of the night, difficulty staying asleep during the course of the night, or feeling that the sleep obtained is not restorative. These difficulties persist despite having an environment conducive to sleep. A central feature of insomnia is that these sleep disturbances are associated with functional impairment during the day, which may include difficulties in concentration, mood and overall performance. In addition, the pattern of sleep difficulties must be repeated at least three times per week and have been present for a minimum period of one month.

This disorder has been linked to increased risk and severity of metabolic, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and mental and emotional health disorders.

In the study of insomnia, genetics plays an important role, however, there are other non-genetic factors that increase the risk of suffering from this condition:

  • The female sex has a greater predisposition to suffer from insomnia due to hormonal changes experienced during the menstrual cycle, menopause or pregnancy.
  • Stress and/or traumatic life events.
  • Advanced age. There is an increased risk of insomnia after the age of 60.
  • Comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions such as anxiety, diabetes or cancer.
  • Lack of a regular sleep schedule.

Prevention of insomnia is based on the adoption of good sleep habits that promote healthy rest. Maintaining a regular bedtime and wake-up routine, even on weekends, along with regular physical activity, is a key strategy for improving sleep quality. Review of medications with possible implications for insomnia, moderation or avoidance of daytime naps, as well as limiting caffeine, alcohol and nicotine intake, also play an essential role in prevention.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

242 loci

Genes analyzed

ACVR2A ADAMTS20 ADARB1 ADO AMFR APOE ARAP2 ARHGAP10 ARRDC3 ASCC3 ASXL3 ATP2B2 BCL11A BRINP3 BTBD9 C16orf72 C1D C20orf204 C8B CA10 CA8 CCDC148 CCDC68 CCDC90B CDH2 CDH8 CHCHD3 CHRM1 CITED2 CNIH2 CNTN5 CSF3R CSMD3 DCAKD DCC DIAPH3 DMAC1 DNAH11 DNAJB9 DNAJC19 DUSP29 EFNA5 ELFN1 EP300 EPHA7 EXD3 FAM180B FAM241A FANCL FAXC FES FOXP1 FOXP2 FRS3 GASK1A GBX2 GLIS3 GNAO1 GOLGA6A GPR139 GPRC5B GRIA1 GRM5 HBP1 HMGA2 HOXB1 HS6ST3 IFT57 IGF1R IGF2BP1 INSYN1 IPO9 ISL1 KCND2 KCNIP4 KDM4B KIF2A KLF7 KLHDC8B KSR2 LHX3 LIN28B LNPK LRMDA LRPPRC LRRC53 LRRIQ3 LRRTM4 LSAMP MACIR MAN1A2 MAP2 MAP2K1 MARCHF7 MDFIC MDGA1 MED27 MEIS1 METTL16 MICB MMRN1 MNT MON1B MRPS18B MTA3 MTRNR2L5 MVK MYT1L NAB2 NDUFA4 NEGR1 NFIB NKAIN2 NLGN1 NOL4L NPAS3 NR2F1 NRXN1 NUDT12 OLFM4 OR12D2 OR9Q1 PAX8 PCDH1 PCDH20 PCDH9 PDCL PDE2A PDE4B PHF2 PIK3C2A PLCH1 PLCL1 POLG POU3F3 PRKG2 PRKN PRKRIP1 PRMT6 PRR15L PRSS55 PTBP2 PTMS PTN PURG QRFP RAB6A RARB RARRES1 RASGRF2 RASGRP1 RBM4 RBM5 RHOT2 RNF130 RNF144B RORB RSKR SALL1 SAMD5 SATB1 SBNO1 SDK1 SEC11C SEMA3F SERPINC1 SERTAD4 SFTA2 SGSM2 SKIDA1 SLC25A20 SLC35B4 SLC39A8 SLC6A15 SLITRK1 SNX29 SORL1 SRSF6 STAU1 SYT13 TAF11 TANC2 TAOK2 TCF12 TENM2 TERF1 TET2 TEX29 TGFBI TLE4 TLR4 TMEM161B TMEM64 TOPAZ1 TOX3 TRAF3IP1 TRPC7 TRPS1 UBA7 UBR5 UNC5D UQCC2 VWC2 VWC2L ZBTB9 ZEB2 ZFP64 ZMAT3 ZMYND8 ZNF536 ZNF654 ZNF784 ZNF804B

Bibliography

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