In logical reasoning, the ideas or sequence of facts are developed coherently and without contradiction. Logical ability is the ability that allows us to think and reason quickly when faced with a problem, without prior information and experience. Its measurement can be very useful in assessing a person's psychological abilities.
Intelligence is a somewhat abstract mental capacity that can be studied in different ways. Throughout history, several models have been created to try to explain this trait.
Logic is a formal science that studies a part of the structure or form of human thought that includes processes such as demonstration, inference and deduction. It is an extremely ancient discipline, dating back to the Ancient Ages. Throughout history it has been considered a branch of philosophy, but the important methodological and knowledge change that took place during the 20th century has led to the distinction between other types of logic, such as mathematics and computational logic.
Logical ability enables a person to adapt to and deal with new situations in an agile way, without previous learning, experience or acquired knowledge being a determining factor in its manifestation. It includes the ability to analyse, reason, identify, solve and extrapolate concepts. It is influenced by the maturational process, reaching its peak early, around adolescence, and deteriorating with age. It is a fundamental ability in scientific, mathematical and technical fields.
Logical ability is influenced by genetics and other variables such as neurophysiology (e.g. the development of neural connections). Also, growing up as a child in a nurturing environment favours the development of neural connections in the regions of the brain associated with memory, learning and spatial orientation.
Being able to assess logical ability helps to obtain information about a person's capacities and can even be very useful in certain diagnoses.
In addition to age, there are other factors that can diminish this ability, such as accidents, pathologies or drug use, among others.
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UK Biobank Database. Fluid intelligence score, Data-Field 20016 [Version Jan-2022]
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