Menarche

Reproductive function in women is closely linked to factors such as nutrition, neuroendocrine signals and genetics. It is known that gene-environment interaction can influence the premature onset of menarche.

Menarche is the name given to the first menstruation in women. It typically occurs about two years after the appearance of pubic hair and incipient breasts, and can occur prematurely before the age of 8 or delayed until the age of 16.

The first menstruation symbolizes a state of maturity characterized by the preparation of the young woman's body for reproduction and greater clarity as to sexual identity.

Menstruation or period is the normal vaginal bleeding that occurs as part of a woman's monthly cycle. Every month, her body prepares for a possible pregnancy. If this does not occur, the uterus sheds its lining (endometrium), which is shed with menstrual bleeding, and is renewed in the next cycle.

Daughters of mothers with an early age of menarche are more likely to have an early onset of menarche.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of loci analyzed

147 loci

Genes analyzed

ADARB2 ADCY3 ALKAL2 ANAPC4 ARL6IP6 ARNTL BCDIN3D BDNF BEND6 BMPR2 BRINP1 BSX CADM1 CAMK4 CCDC170 CCDC190 CCDC85A CENPW CHD2 COG6 CSMD1 CTBP2 CTSW CYFIP2 DCAKD DET1 DNAJB8 EGR4 FAM131A FAM83B FBXO11 FEZF1 FIGN FNDC3A FOXO3 FRS3 GADD45G GHSR GNPDA2 GOLGA6A GPR45 GPRC5B GTF2IRD2 HMG20A HNF1A HPCAL1 HPGDS HSD17B12 HTR1B ICE2 IHO1 INHBA INO80 JADE2 KAZN KCNB2 KCNK9 KDM4C KLF12 LEPR LIN28B LMO3 LRP1B LRRC53 LSAMP MAPK3 MC3R METTL15 MKRN3 MRTFB MSANTD1 NDN NEGR1 NEUROG3 NKIRAS1 NQO1 NR4A2 NR5A1 NR5A2 NRBF2 NREP NT5DC2 NTSR2 OAZ2 OLFM3 OPRK1 OR5AP2 PCGF5 PCSK1 PCSK2 PDE7B PEX2 PIN1 POU3F1 PPM1F PRDM13 PSMG1 PTOV1 PTPRD PTPRN2 RAPSN RARB RBM15B REN REXO1 RIN2 RMI1 RORB RPAP3 RPGRIP1L RTL1 RXRG SATB2 SEC16B SIM1 SIX6 SKOR1 SKOR2 SLC32A1 SMARCA2 SNAP91 SOX5 SOX6 SPOCK1 SRF ST3GAL3 STARD4 STIM2 STXBP4 STXBP5 SULF2 TACR3 TET2 TFAP2B TGIF1 THSD7B TLE1 TMEM108 TMEM160 TMEM18 TMEM245 TMEM38B TOX3 TRA2B TRIM41 TRIM66 TRPC6 TTLL7 USP34 USP35 UTP18 VGLL3 WARS1 WWP1 ZBTB32 ZNF131 ZNF483 ZNF518A ZNF704

Bibliography

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