Glycated hemoglobin levels

Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells or erythrocytes, and when bound to glucose molecules, it gives rise to the glycosylated form of hemoglobin, known as HbA1c. Measurement of HbA1c levels plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes, a disease that affects about 9.3% of the world`s population.

Glycosylated hemoglobin, also known as hemoglobin A1c or simply HbA1c, is a marker used to measure long-term blood sugar control. This test provides an average estimate of blood glucose levels over a period of approximately 2 to 3 months, as it reflects how blood sugar levels have been maintained over that period of time. It is one of the tests commonly used for the diagnosis of prediabetes and diabetes.

Glucose in the blood naturally binds to hemoglobin, a protein present in red blood cells. This binding persists for a period ranging from 90 to 120 days (approximately 3 months). When blood glucose levels remain elevated for a prolonged period of time, more glucose binds to hemoglobin. Measurement of HbA1c reflects this glycosylation process and provides an indication of the average blood glucose control over the previous weeks. The higher the HbA1c concentration, the higher the average blood sugar during that period, and vice versa.

An HbA1c level below 5.7 % is considered within normal values, while a range of 5.7 to 6.4 % indicates the presence of prediabetes. When HbA1c reaches or exceeds 6.5 %, the diagnosis of diabetes is established. In the case of prediabetes, the higher the HbA1c value within the range of 5.7 to 6.4 %, the higher the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

The risk factors associated with this trait are related to diabetes and prediabetes. In this regard, overweight, age (people older than 45 years), previous experience of gestational diabetes, family history and belonging to certain ethnicities (such as African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native American, Pacific Islander and Asian American) have been identified as elements that increase the risk of having altered levels of glycosylated hemoglobin.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

168 loci

Genes analyzed

A4GALT ABCC1 ABCG4 ABO ADCY5 ADRA2A AK9 ANKRD27 APOC1 ARAP1 ARHGAP42 ARHGAP45 ATAD2B ATF1 ATP11A ATP2B4 ATRIP ATXN2 BCL11A BCL2L11 BCL7C BMP8A BSN C1S C2orf16 CARMIL1 CBX5 CCAR1 CCDC62 CCND2 CCNE2 CDC14A CDH3 CDKAL1 CDKN1C CDKN2B CFAP410 CHI3L2 CITED2 CMIP CTRB1 CTSS CYP2R1 CYTH1 DGAT1 DLK1 EBF1 ELFN1 EOMES FADS1 FAF1 FBXO11 FLACC1 FLOT2 FNDC3B FZD9 GAS6 GCK GJA1 GPR137 GPR161 GPSM1 GSAP GYPA HBB HBS1L HK1 HMG20A HMGA2 HNF4A ID2 IGF2BP3 INS-IGF2 IRS1 JAZF1 KCNJ11 KCTD17 KIF11 KL KLF4 KLLN LCORL LIF MBNL1 MEAK7 MKRN2OS MTNR1B MYBPC3 MYO15A MYO9B NDUFAF3 NEDD1 NFIC NLRP6 NOTCH2 NPIPB6 NPRL3 NUDT5 OLA1 OR10AD1 OR10Z1 OR4C15 OR4C46 OR4S1 PAQR9 PDGFC PDX1 PFKFB2 PFKP PIEZO1 PINX1 PKD2 PKD2L1 PLCB4 PLEKHH2 PLEKHO1 PLPP1 PROX1 PTTG1IP PXMP4 RAI14 RASGRP1 RGS17 RNF208 RPGRIP1L RPL22L1 RPL6 RTBDN S1PR3 SBF2 SEMA3F SIGLECL1 SIX3 SLC22A16 SLC25A37 SLC30A8 SLC7A7 SMIM1 SPC25 SPTB SRL SSR1 ST6GAL1 STH SWAP70 TBCD TBL1XR1 TCF7L2 TET2 TMC8 TMEM131L TMEM161B TRIB1 TRIM58 UBE2E2 VAV3 VPS13A WASL WFS1 WNT3 WRAP53 YPEL2 YWHAH ZBED3 ZBTB38 ZBTB48 ZMIZ1 ZNF655

Haven't you taken a DNA test yet?

Get your genetic test and find out all about yourself.

starter
Starter DNA test

Ancestry, Traits and Wellness

Buy
starter
Advanced DNA test

Health, Ancestry, Traits and Wellness

Buy
The DNA test you were looking for
Buy