LDL cholesterol levels

LDL cholesterol, commonly called "bad cholesterol," is a fat that circulates in the blood, moving cholesterol through the body to where it is needed for cell repair and depositing it on the inside of artery walls.

LDL cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a lipoprotein whose function is to transport cholesterol to the cells where it exerts its function. It is estimated that LDL cholesterol transports about 60-70% of total serum cholesterol. It differs from other types of cholesterol transporters such as HDL in that its density is lower.

It is often referred to as "bad cholesterol" because when LDL cholesterol levels are too high, a condition called hypercholesterolemia, it increases the risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

Elevated LDL levels lead to the accumulation of LDL-C in the arterial wall. Following the accumulation of LDL, its oxidation occurs. Oxidized LDL can cause extensive damage to the arterial wall, including eliciting an inflammatory response, promoting coagulation, increasing the activity of some substances that cause vasoconstriction, and inhibiting some substances that cause vasodilation.

The following are the default standard LDL cholesterol levels:

  • Optimal: less than 100 mg/ dL.
  • Near optimal/above optimal: 100 to 129 mg/dL
  • Borderline high: 130 to 159 mg/dL
  • High: 160 to 189 mg/dL
  • Very high: more than 190 mg/dL

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of loci analyzed

121 loci

Genes analyzed

ABCA1 ABCA6 ABCG5 ABO ANGPTL3 ANXA9 APOA5 APOB APOC4 APOE ASGR1 ATXN2 BCL3 BUD13 C2orf16 CELSR2 CEP112 CETP CMTM6 CSNK1G3 DDX18 DDX56 DHX38 DNAH11 DNAJC13 DYNC2LI1 EFCAB13 ERGIC3 FADS1 FN1 FRK FUT2 GFI1 GLI2 GPAM GRB14 HFE HGFAC HMGCR HNF1A HNF4A HORMAD2 HPR IGF2R IRF2BP2 KHNYN LDLR LPA MACO1 MAFB MAP3K19 MROH2A MTARC1 MYLIP NECTIN2 NFE2L3 NPC1L1 OTX1 PCSK9 PLCG1 PLEC PPARG PPP1R3B PSRC1 RP1 SLC22A1 SLC22A3 SNX5 SPC24 SPTLC3 SPTY2D1 ST3GAL4 SURF6 TDRD15 TIMD4 TM6SF2 TOMM40 TRIB1 TRPS1 TXNL4B UBXN2B USP24 VLDLR ZAR1L ZDHHC18 ZPR1

Bibliography

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