Prediction of visceral adipose tissue

Visceral adipose tissue is the fat stored around internal organs. Its increase has been linked as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and atherosclerosis, and metabolic diseases.

Adipose tissue or fat tissue is made up of cells capable of accumulating fat, the adipocytes. This tissue has various functions such as metabolic, cushioning, protecting and holding in place internal organs and other structures of the body.

In the human body, adipose tissue is located under the skin (subcutaneous fat), around the organs (visceral fat), in the bone marrow (yellow bone marrow) and in the breasts. Specifically, visceral fat functions as a lipid reserve and provides protection. In general, men have a higher level of visceral fat due to the protective effect of estrogens during childbearing age, which decreases after menopause.

Visceral fat is located in the abdominal cavity and its excess has been directly related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammatory diseases and other obesity-related diseases. Why abdominal fat is more harmful than other fat deposits, such as subcutaneous adipose tissue, has not been fully elucidated. Possible hypotheses point to a greater lipolytic capacity and its resistance to the antilipolytic effects of insulin, resulting in higher concentrations of circulating fatty acids. In addition, studies also point to visceral fat having a higher rate of macrophage infiltration, resulting in a proinflammatory profile that promotes insulin resistance.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of loci analyzed

198 loci

Genes analyzed

ABHD17C ACOT12 ACVR2A ADARB1 ADCY3 ADGRB2 ADH1A ADPGK AFF3 AGBL4 ALKAL2 AMN ANAPC4 ANKK1 ANTXR2 ARL14EP ARNTL ARPP21 ATP2A1 ATXN7L3 AXIN1 B3GAT1 BCDIN3D BDNF BMP8A BNC2 BPTF CADM2 CALCRL CAMK1G CCDC171 CCK CCNE1 CDH8 CHMP6 CHORDC1 CNIH2 COX8C CPNE4 CPS1 CREBBP CRTAC1 CSNKA2IP CTNNB1 CYP1A1 DAPL1 DCP1B DHFR2 DIO2 DLC1 DLK1 DNAJC1 DNER DPYD DPYSL4 DUSP6 ENTPD6 EPHA3 ETAA1 ETV5 FAM114A2 FANCL FBXL17 FEZF2 FHIT FOXG1 FOXO3 FSHR FUT11 GADD45G GALNT17 GBE1 GGNBP2 GIPR GNPDA2 GOLGA3 GPR61 GRIN2A H2BC8 HIVEP2 HIVEP3 HMG20A HNF4G HRH4 HSD17B1 HSD17B12 HTR1A IGF2BP1 IPO9 KCNB2 KCNK3 KIAA1522 KNTC1 L1TD1 LCORL LEMD2 LINGO1 LINGO2 LRFN2 MAML3 MAST2 MC4R MCMDC2 MEF2C MIB2 MMS22L MON1A MSANTD1 MUC13 NAALADL2 NEGR1 NFIL3 NPAS3 NQO1 NRXN1 NUDT12 OLFM4 PARD3B PCDH17 PCDH18 PDE1C PDZRN4 PGPEP1 PHF2 PKD1 PKD1L3 PKHD1 PMAIP1 POC5 POM121C PPARG PRMT6 PRRC2A PTBP2 PTPRD PURG RAB3A RAD52 RIT2 RMC1 RMDN1 RPAIN RPGRIP1L RPL10L RSU1 RTN4RL1 SCYL1 SEC16B SKOR1 SLC35G2 SLC39A8 SLC6A4 SLIT2 SLITRK6 SMIM30 SMIM40 SNX11 SP5 SPDYE17 SPHKAP SSR3 STK24 STK33 STPG4 STXBP6 SYT14 SYT16 TCP11 TEX29 TFAP2B TLX3 TMEM160 TMEM161B TMEM18 TMEM219 TMEM225B TOMM40 TRPS1 UBE2E3 UBE2L5 UBQLN4 UHRF1BP1 VPS11 WSCD2 ZBTB7A ZFP64 ZNF654 ZNF668 ZZEF1 ZZZ3

Bibliography

Karlsson T., Rask-Andersen M., et al. Contribution of genetics to visceral adiposity and its relation to cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Nature Medicine, 09 Sep 2019, 25(9):1390-1395

Mittal B. Subcutaneous adipose tissue & visceral adipose tissue. Indian J Med Res. 2019;149(5):571-573. doi:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1910_18

Suárez-Cuenca, J.A., De La Peña-Sosa, G., De La Vega-Moreno, K. et al. Enlarged adipocytes from subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue differentially contribute to metabolic dysfunction and atherogenic risk of patients with obesity. Sci Rep, 2021; 11, 1831.

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