Arterial hypertension

Arterial hypertension is a chronic pathology characterized by a continuous increase in blood pressure. It is a potentially serious silent disease directly related to coronary heart disease, vascular accidents, heart failure or renal failure. It has a high prevalence with more than one third of the population affected, being the main reason for medical consultation in the world.

There are two types of hypertension:

  • Primary hypertension, which is that suffered by most adults for which there is no directly identifiable cause.
  • Secondary hypertension, which is caused by an underlying disease such as kidney disease, sleep apnea, adrenal gland tumors, thyroid problems or the use of certain medications, among others.

In addition to the above, arterial hypertension can be favored by multiple risk factors:

  • In most cases it develops in adults and its incidence increases as the years go by.
  • It is more common in men until menopause, when the risk is reversed.
  • Ethnic origin. It is more common in people of African descent, with a higher rate of complications.
  • Overweight or obesity.
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Tobacco consumption not only increases blood pressure, but its compounds can damage vessel walls, increasing the risk of complications.
  • Diet high in sodium.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Stress.
  • Certain chronic diseases, such as sleep apnea or chronic kidney disease.
  • Pregnancy.

Symptoms

Most people with hypertension are unaware that they are hypertensive, since the disease, in most cases, is not accompanied by obvious symptoms. Therefore, it is highly recommended to evaluate blood pressure periodically.

Occasionally there may be some mild symptoms such as headaches, nosebleeds, irregular heartbeat or visual disturbances. Among the possible complications that can occur due to sustained high blood pressure are:

  • Angina pectoris.
  • Myocardial infarction due to obstruction of blood flow to the heart.
  • Cardiac and/or renal failure.
  • Aneurysms, with the consequent risk of rupture.
  • Irregular heart rhythm.

Prevention

Arterial hypertension is a controllable pathology in most cases. The most important lifestyle habits to prevent it are:

  • Maintain a healthy diet, limiting the amount of sodium (salt) and alcohol.
  • Regular physical activity.
  • Maintain a healthy weight, avoiding obesity and overweight.
  • Stop smoking. Smoking causes damage to blood vessels and increases the risk of high blood pressure. In addition, it can worsen health problems related to hypertension.
  • Control stress and learn how to manage it.

The more lifestyle changes you make, the more likely you are to lower your blood pressure and avoid the health problems associated with high blood pressure.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

230 loci

Genes analyzed

ABHD17C ABO ACE ACP2 ADCY9 ADH1B ADK ADO ADRA1D ADRB1 AGT AKR1B10 ANAPC4 ANKRD55 APOLD1 ARHGAP42 ARHGEF18 ARNTL ATG7 ATP2B1 BAHCC1 C16orf90 C1GALT1 C20orf203 CABCOCO1 CACNA1D CACNB2 CAND1 CASZ1 CCDC170 CDC25A CEP170 CERS5 CHD3 CHDH CKB CLCN6 CLINT1 CMIP COL4A1 COPS4 CSK CYP11B2 DBH DCAKD DNAJB8 DPEP1 DPYSL2 DVL3 EBF1 EBF2 EFR3B ENPEP EVX1 EXD1 FBF1 FBN2 FES FGF5 FGF9 FGFR2 FIGN FOSL2 FOXP2 FTO FURIN GLYR1 GOSR2 GRIFIN GTF2B GUCY1A1 GUCY1A2 H2BC4 H4C3 HAAO HIC1 HIPK2 HIVEP3 HLX HNF4G HNRNPA1P48 HOXA13 HOXB5 HOXC4 HRCT1 HSD17B12 HSF2BP HSF5 IGF2BP1 IL37 INPP5A INSR IRAK1BP1 IRF1 IRX1 JAG1 JARID2 JPH2 KAT2B KCNJ11 KCNK2 KCNK3 KDM4B KIF23 KLF14 KLF3 KLHL21 KLHL3 LARP4 LCORL LHFPL2 LRRC10B LSP1 MAD1L1 MAP3K1 MC4R MCTP2 MECOM METTL4 MEX3C MIA2 MKLN1 MLF1 MOB2 MORC3 MRAP MRAS MSL2 MTF2 MYC MYO9B NAA16 NCALD NFATC2 NGF NOS3 NPNT NPR1 NPR3 NRIP1 NT5C2 OR10AD1 OR4A5 OR4C12 OR9G4 OVOL1 PCDH18 PCNX3 PDE10A PDE1A PDE3A PDIA2 PIK3CG PKHD1 PKP4 PLCB1 PLCE1 PLEKHG1 PLPP3 PODXL PPP1R1C PRAG1 PRDM6 PREX1 PRKAG2 PRKD3 PRL PTEN PTPRJ PURG PXDNL RAD51B RAPGEF3 REXO1 RGL3 RGS7BP RIMKLB RNF34 RRAS RSPO3 RUNX3 RYK SEPTIN9 SERPINI1 SETBP1 SGCG SH2B3 SH3TC2 SIK1 SIK2 SIPA1L1 SLC30A5 SLC35F1 SLC39A8 SLC45A1 SLC4A10 SLC4A7 SLC7A1 SLC9A3R2 SLC9B1 SNX16 SORCS3 SOS2 SOX6 SOX7 SP9 SPDYE5 STIM2 STK38L SVEP1 SWAP70 TBX2 TBX3 TCF21 TCHP TERT THADA TMEM161B TNIP2 TNS2 TRIM36 TSC22D2 UFL1 UMOD UNC5C USP34 USP38 VDR WDTC1 WNT2B WNT3A WT1 ZBTB10 ZBTB46 ZC3HC1 ZFP36L1 ZFPM2 ZNF318 ZNF423 ZNF652 ZNF689 ZNF831 ZSCAN23 ZZEF1

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