Benign prostatic hyperplasia

The prostate is a small gland that helps produce semen and its non-malignant enlargement is a common medical condition in older men, affecting up to 80% of men over the age of 80.

The prostate is a gland that usually continues to grow throughout life. The cause of this benign enlargement is not entirely clear, although it is thought that it may be due to changes in the balance of sex hormones in men as they age.

In addition to age, which is the most important risk factor, several others have been described:

  • Family history.
  • Diabetes and heart disease may favor its appearance.
  • Obesity and overweight may increase the risk of prostate hyperplasia.

Symptoms

Symptoms usually appear progressively, although sometimes they do not worsen or even improve over time. The most common symptoms include the following:

  • Need to urinate frequently or urgently, especially at night.
  • Difficulty in starting to urinate.
  • Weak urine flow and dribbling after urination.
  • Incomplete emptying of the bladder after urination.

Although less frequently, complications associated with BPH can occur, such as inability to urinate, recurrent urinary tract infections, development of bladder stones or even kidney damage.

Prevention

There are no effective ways to prevent benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, maintaining a proper urination habit by not unnecessarily withholding urine will delay the onset of symptoms and is an effective preventive measure for associated complications.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

19 loci

Genes analyzed

BCL11A CLPTM1L CTAGE1 DLEU7 DNAJC1 EBLN1 FGFR2 GATA5 H2BC13 HNF1B MACROH2A1 ODF3 RNASEH2B STARD4 TBX3 TBX5 TERT TSHZ3 WDR11

Bibliography

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