Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is caused when some prostate cells mutate and begin to multiply uncontrollably. The prostate is a small, walnut-shaped gland that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. It is the second most common type of cancer in men and generally has a good prognosis due to the widespread use of early detection techniques.

The incidence of prostate cancer is estimated at approximately 25 cases per 100,000 population. The causes of prostate cancer are not clear, although some factors have been identified that increase the risk of developing the disease. In addition to genetic factors, such as the presence of BRCA1/2 mutations or hereditary syndromes such as Lynch syndrome, environmental factors have been identified that contribute to the increased risk of prostate cancer. Among them:

  • It is more frequent after the age of 50.
  • Ethnic origin, being more common in men of African-American origin. In addition, in them the probabilities of being more aggressive are increased.
  • Obesity.
  • Smoking.
  • Exposure to certain chemical substances, such as agent orange.
  • Chronic inflammation of the prostate
  • Viral infections such as herpes, cytomegalovirus or papilloma, and sexually transmitted bacterial infections can increase the risk in patients with a genetic predisposition.

Symptoms

It is common for prostate cancer not to present any symptoms in the initial stages of the disease. In general, they are tumors that evolve slowly and the symptoms appear in more advanced stages of the process. The most common symptoms are the following:

  • Difficulty in starting to urinate.
  • Weak or interrupted urine flow.
  • Frequent urination, especially at night.
  • Difficulty emptying the bladder.
  • Pain or burning when urinating.
  • Blood in the urine or semen.
  • Persistent pain in the back, hips or pelvis.
  • Pain on ejaculation.

These symptoms are common to other more frequent conditions so it is important to consult a medical specialist in case of occurrence.

Prevention

The risk of developing prostate cancer is fundamentally related to age, race, family history and genetic predisposition of each individual. These factors are considered to be non-modifiable and there are currently no measures that can be taken to prevent it.

However, there are some measures that could reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

  • Having a healthy weight.
  • Healthy diet, with main consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoiding foods rich in fats.
  • Decrease in the consumption of dairy products. Studies have associated excess consumption of dairy products with an increased risk of prostate carcinoma.
  • Prostate cancer screening programs are very effective in detecting prostate cancer. This, together with its slow evolution and the presence of characteristic symptoms, allows it to be a carcinoma with a good prognosis and a very low mortality rate.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

214 loci

Genes analyzed

ACTRT3 ADAMTSL1 ADGRG1 ADNP ANO7 ANTXRL ANXA9 APOLD1 AR ARHGAP6 ARMC2 ATF7IP ATP2B1 B3GAT1 BBX BCAS1 BCL2L11 BIK BSN C14orf39 CASP8 CCDC54 CCND1 CDCA7 CDK6 CDKN2B CFAP157 CHMP2B CLCNKB CLDN23 COL23A1 COL2A1 COPRS CTBP2 CTSK DDX52 DENND4B DIP2C DLEU7 DNAH11 DNMT3B DPM3 EEFSEC ELFN1 EMSY ERICH4 ETS2 ETV3 FAM111A FAM118A FBRSL1 FERMT2 FGFR2 FOXC1 FOXP4 GATA2 GDF7 GDNF GLI2 GPA33 GRHL1 GTPBP1 HAAO HELZ2 HIBADH HNF1B ID2 INCENP INHBB IRX3 IRX4 IRX5 ITGA6 ITGB8 JADE2 JAZF1 KDM2A KLF5 KLF7 KLK15 KLK3 KRT8 LAMC1 LMTK2 LRATD2 MAF MAML3 MAP3K1 MARCHF8 MAT2A MBD2 MBNL1 MDFIC2 MDM4 MEIS1 MLPH MMP14 MMP7 MOB2 MPHOSPH6 MSMB MYCN MYEOV MYO6 MYO9B MYOCD NAA38 NCEH1 NEDD9 NKX3-1 NOL10 OTX1 PARPBP PAX9 PDLIM5 PEX14 PLEKHH2 POU1F1 POU5F1B PPFIBP2 PPP2R2A PRPH RAB29 RAD23B RAD51 RAD51B RASSF3 RASSF6 RFX6 RGS17 RGS5 RNLS RPL4 RPS24 RPS3A RRAGA RSPO2 RTEL1-TNFRSF6B SALL3 SATB1 SEC11C SESN1 SIDT1 SIPA1L3 SKIL SLC22A1 SLC25A37 SLC2A4RG SLC35G5 SLC8A3 SMIM21 SOX14 SOX4 SP8 SPINT2 STK39 SUGCT SUPT4H1 TACC1 TBX1 TBX5 TCF7L2 TERT TET2 TH THADA TLE3 TLE4 TMEM17 TMPRSS2 TNRC6B TNS3 TOR1AIP1 TOR1B TPCN2 TRIM8 TSHZ1 TSHZ3 TTC28 TTC6 UBAP2 UBE2E2 UHRF1BP1 UQCC1 VEGFA VGLL3 VPS53 WDR11 WTAP ZBTB38 ZBTB7B ZFP36L1 ZMIZ1 ZNF322 ZNF462 ZNF652 ZNF827

Bibliography

Conti DV, Darst BF, Moss LC, et al. Trans-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of prostate cancer identifies new susceptibility loci and informs genetic risk prediction. Nature Genetics. 2021 Jan;53(1):65-75.

Brenes-Bermudez FJ and Alcántara-Montero Earlydetectionorscreeninginthepreventionofprostatecancer?. Spanish Society of Primary Health Care Physicians (SEMERGEN) 2017;43(2):100-108.

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