Acne vulgaris

Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder caused by inflammation of the pilosebaceous unit, resulting in the characteristic comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and cysts.

It is estimated that more than 85% of adolescents are affected to some degree by acne, making acne the most prevalent skin disease worldwide. Lesions are usually confined to the face, neck, chest and back and usually appear during puberty.

Four interrelated processes are involved in the development of acne vulgaris: stimulation of the sebaceous glands by circulating androgens, abnormal desquamation of the follicular epithelium, dysbiosis of the follicle microbiome and colonization of the hair follicle.The overproduction of sebum is a major cause of sebaceous sebum production, and the overproduction of sebum is a major cause of sebum production in the sebaceous follicle.

Overproduction of sebum is the result of an excess of androgen hormones or increased sensitivity of the sebaceous glands to normal levels of androgen hormones. In addition, other factors such as genetics and diet can also influence the development and progression of the disease. Certain foods and beverages, particularly those with a high glycemic index (e.g., sugary drinks, starchy foods, highly processed foods) and skim milk, appear to affect the severity of acne. Other factors that may be involved in the development or progression of acne include psychological stress, tobacco smoke and damaged or unhealthy skin.

Studies indicate that acne is associated with impaired quality of life, including lower rates of employment in patients with acne and lower school and work performance. In addition, several studies report increased rates of clinical depression, anxiety and hospitalization for mental disorders in adults and adolescents with acne, with the magnitude of the effect being greater in adults.

Treatment of acne vulgaris, regardless of its severity, should begin with comprehensive patient counseling that includes information about the nature of the disease, proper skin care practices, and realistic treatment expectations.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

44 loci

Genes analyzed

ADAMTS18 ANKRD55 BCL11A BORCS5 C8orf48 CLEC16A CSTA DBX1 DLG1 EDAR EDNRA ERRFI1 FCHO2 FGF10 FST H2BC13 IL1B INAVA LAMC2 LYPLAL1 MYEOV PARD6G PCNX3 PIM3 PNPLA3 PPP1R12B PRAG1 PRDM1 RASSF10 SEMA4B SHB SLC22A5 SOAT1 SOX7 SPRY1 SPRY2 SUGCT TBX18 TIMP3 TIMP4 UPB1 USP50 WNT10A ZC3H11B

Bibliography

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