Mouth ulcers

Mouth ulcers are a common disorder whose incidence decreases with age and can have multiple causes, some of which are still unknown. They are often painful and can make eating and speaking difficult.

Oral ulceration is the most common ulcerative condition in humans, affecting up to 25% of young adults. Mouth ulcers become less common with age and the causes of their development may vary with time and age.

Many causes of mouth ulcers are recognized, including mucosal trauma and a number of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. For example, mouth ulcers are common in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn`s disease or systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as can develop without being attributed to any type of disease.

Some other factors that have been associated with this pathology include vitamin or hematinic deficiencies, chemicals such as sodium lauryl sulfate, mechanical trauma, stress and anxiety, or bacterial or viral infections.

Immune regulation is also believed to play a key role in their occurrence, as susceptible individuals experience focal infiltration of the oral mucosa by monocytes and T lymphocytes deep to the basement membrane, followed by loss of the superficial mucosa and a proliferative phase of scarring.

Mouth ulcers usually heal on their own within one to two weeks. However, in some cases, they may be persistent or recur frequently. Treatment may include mouth rinses with antiseptic or analgesic solutions, as well as the application of topical creams or gels to relieve pain.

Genes analyzed

CCDC8 CCR2 CEBPB CRB1 CYP21A2 GIMAP6 GSDMD GTDC1 HCAR3 HLA-A HLA-B HLA-DQA2 HLA-E HMGB1P27 IFNGR1 IKZF1 IL10 IL12A IL7R IRF5 IRF8 LYZ MAFB MAST3 MCL1 NFKB1 NLRP3 NOD2 PDE4D PRDM1 REX1BD RIPK2 RREB1 TICAM1 TNFSF15 TRIB1 ZNF496 ZPBP2

Bibliography

Dudding T., Haworth S., et al . Genome wide analysis for mouth ulcers identifies associations at immune regulatory loci. Nature Communications, 05 Mar 2019, 10(1):1052.

Tabolli S., Bergamo F., et al . Quality of life and psychological problems of patients with oral mucosal disease in dermatological practice. Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland), 28 Jan 2009, 218(4):314-320.

Minhas S., Sajjad A., et al . Oral Ulcers Presentation in Systemic Diseases: An Update. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019 Oct 15; 7(19): 3341-3347.

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