Blood glucose

Glucose is the main sugar found in the blood. It is the main source of energy for all cells and its blood levels are finely regulated. Its alteration can lead to pathologies such as diabetes.

Glucose is a monosaccharide, a form of sugar. It is the most abundant organic compound in nature and is the primary source of energy for cells.

In general, sugars ingested with food are converted to glucose in metabolic processes. Glucose reaches the bloodstream to reach all tissues of the body.

Blood glucose levels vary throughout the day, between 70 and 145 milligrams per deciliter of blood, being lower on an empty stomach and rising after food intake (postprandial glycemia).

Increased glucose, measured on an empty stomach, is related to the onset of diabetes. In these cases, insulin, which is the hormone responsible for lowering blood glucose after meals, does not work properly and it accumulates in the blood. In the initial stages of alteration (also known as pre-diabetic state), changes in lifestyle habits are usually sufficient to control it.

However, sometimes high blood glucose levels maintained over time can lead to the development of diabetes. Diabetes is a chronic disease in which either there is not enough insulin, or the cells do not respond to it adequately, leaving too much sugar in the bloodstream, which over time and with poor control can cause serious health problems such as heart disease, vision loss and kidney disease.

Although blood glucose levels are especially linked to lifestyle, genetic factors have been identified that can cause these levels to vary within the physiological range.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of loci analyzed

69 loci

Genes analyzed

ABCB10 ABITRAM ABO ACSL1 ADCY5 ADCY9 ADRA2A ANKRD55 ARAP1 ARHGAP1 C2CD4A CDC14A CDKAL1 CDKN1C CDKN2B CRY2 CTXND2 DGKB DNLZ ELP1 EML6 FADS1 FBRSL1 FOLH1 FOXA2 FOXN3 G6PC2 GAD2 GCKR GLIS3 GRB10 HMG20A IGF1R INS INS-IGF2 KL LMAN1L LMO1 LPP MADD MAPRE3 MBNL1 MIP MTMR3 MTNR1B NEDD1 OR4S1 PAM PCSK1 PDE6C PDX1 PEAK1 PPP1R3B PROX1 R3HDM2 RBKS RGS17 RNF34 RREB1 SLC2A2 SLC30A8 SPC25 STEAP2 STYXL1 TCF7L2 THADA TP53INP1 TPD52 WARS1 YKT6 ZBED3 ZBTB38 ZHX3

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