Overweight and obesity are a worldwide health problem and cause an abnormal or excessive accumulation of fat that can have negative effects on health. The increase in its prevalence globally is mainly due to the way we eat and our lifestyle habits. However, there are certain people who have a greater tendency to be overweight, possibly in part due to their genetics.
Food intake control
Body weight and fat percentage and distribution are finely regulated by multiple hormones and neuropeptides. These molecules act on the nervous system regulating the sensation of appetite and satiety. On the other hand, there are substances such as neurotransmitters (dopamine) that when released generate pleasure when eating, contributing to food motivation.
Variants in genes involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety are crucial to understand why some people have a greater tendency to eat high-calorie foods and snack between meals than others and, therefore, a greater predisposition to accumulate fat.
Hohmann S, Buchmann AF, Witt SH, Rietschel M, Jennen-Steinmetz C, Schmidt MH, et al. Increasing association between a neuropeptide Y promoter polymorphism and body mass index during the course of development. Pediatr. Obes. .7(6):453–60.
Mutschler J, Abbruzzese E, Wiedemann K, von der Goltz C, Dinter C, Mobascher A, et al. Functional polymorphism in the neuropeptide Y gene promoter (rs16147) is associated with serum leptin levels and waist-hip ratio in women. Ann. Nutr. Metab.