Intraocular pressure

Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the measure of the fluid pressure inside the eye and plays an essential role in maintaining the shape and function of the eyeball. Variations in IOP are linked to eye diseases such as glaucoma, retinal detachment and uveitis.

Ocular pressure, known as intraocular pressure, refers to the pressure of the fluid inside the eye. The eye contains two fluids, the vitreous humor in the posterior chamber and the aqueous humor in the anterior chamber. IOP is primarily determined by the balance between the production and drainage of aqueous humor.

The standard IOP measurement is in millimeters of mercury (mmHg), and normal values are between 10 and 20 mmHg. Having abnormally high or low eye pressure can be detrimental to vision. Ocular hypertension is the elevation of IOP without additional symptoms, and may cause no harm in some individuals, while others may suffer vision loss even with apparently normal IOP. Glaucoma, on the other hand, is a disease in which chronic high IOP can damage the optic nerve and cause permanent vision loss, if not properly treated. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma. For this reason, it is vitally important to control and reduce IOP, as it plays a key role in preventing and slowing the progression of this eye disease.

Non-genetic factors that have been linked to intraocular pressure (IOP) include the presence of type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (both hyper- and hypotension), body mass index, extreme myopia, age, history of eye disease and a history of myopia.a, age, family history of glaucoma or ocular hypertension, ethnicity (where Africans and Hispanics are at higher risk), prolonged steroid use, and history of previous eye injury or surgery.

To prevent ocular hypertension and maintain good overall eye health, it is important to schedule regular eye exams, avoid smoking and use protective measures such as sunglasses. In addition, a healthy diet with green leafy vegetables and fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, along with regular exercise and control of blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar levels, are key measures to maintain good eye health.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

158 loci

Genes analyzed

ABCA1 ABO ADAMTS17 ADAMTS18 ADAMTS19 ADAMTS6 ADAMTS8 AFAP1 AHRR AKAP13 ALCAM ALDH3A1 ANGPT1 ANGPT2 ANKRD1 ANTXR1 ARHGAP20 ARID5B ASB1 BCAS3 C11orf49 C4orf36 C8orf48 CADM2 CAMTA2 CAV1 CDO1 CEND1 CENPW COL16A1 COL24A1 COL26A1 COL5A1 COL8A2 CPXM1 CTTNBP2 DGKG DNALI1 DPF3 EFEMP1 EMID1 ETS1 ETS2 FBXO32 FER FERMT2 FEZ2 FKBPL FMNL2 FOSL2 FOXC1 FOXO1 GAS7 GHSR GLIS3 GLT8D2 GMDS GPR158 GRIK4 GTF2B H1-0 HIC1 HUS1B IBTK IGF1 IQCH JAG1 JCAD KAZALD1 LIN28B LMO7 LMX1B LOX LPP LTBP1 LUM LYPLAL1 MAFB MAMDC2 MAPK8IP3 ME3 MECOM MEIS1 MESP2 METTL15 MFAP2 MFF MOV10 MPDZ MRPS27 MTFR2 MYOF NDFIP2 NEURL1 NPAS3 NPLOC4 NTMT2 ODF3L1 OR4A47 OR4C12 OR4C13 OR5AP2 OTOP3 PDLIM4 PHOSPHO1 PIP4K2B PKHD1 PKIA PLEKHA7 PRRX1 PRTFDC1 PRTG PSMC3 PTGDS PTPN1 PTPRJ RALB REV1 RIMBP3C SEMA3C SEMA3F SEPTIN9 SIX3 SLC1A3 SLC27A6 SOX11 SPC24 SPTBN1 STAG1 STOX2 SYNJ2 TANGO2 TCF4 TCF7L2 TGFB2 THBS4 TIMP3 TMEM119 TMEM26 TNS1 TP53INP1 TRAF3IP2 TRAM2 TRIM48 TRIM51GP TRMT61B TTC6 TYR UCK2 UMPS VPS13C VPS9D1 WBP4 WNT9B ZC3H11B ZFP36L2 ZNF469 ZNF516 ZNF891

Bibliography

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