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Tendinopathies in upper extremities (arms)

Tendons are anatomical structures located between the muscle and the bone, whose function is to transmit the force generated by the muscle to the bone, giving rise to the joint movement.

Tendons are composed mostly of collagen (30%) and water (68%), with a small proportion of elastin (2%). On the other hand, the vascularization of the same is limited, but increases during the exercise and before the healing processes.

The term “tendinitis” itself refers to an inflammatory situation, therefore, currently tend to evolve with the concept of tendinopathies as a general and global entity (in which not always histological studies have shown inflammatory processes with markers of inflammation in the associated injury).

One of the main characteristics associated with the tendon is its modulation capacity, and therefore its potential ability to return to its basal state included after damage. For this it is important to know the intrinsic, individual, genetic, biomechanical and environmental factors that interact with each other and that prevent and optimize the recovery of the tendinopathies.

The influence of genetics on tendon pathologies is increasingly known, which allows a more exhaustive knowledge of the interpretation of genetic variation, not only in the etiopathogenesis but also in other aspects such as susceptibility, prognosis and the individual response to treatments.


The rotator cuff muscles are small, stabilizing muscles of the shoulder joint, which allow the movements of the shoulder to be precise and coordinated. It is composed of four muscles (supraspinatus, subscapularis, minor round and infraspinatus) and their responsible tendons.

Of the four muscles of the rotator cuff, the tendon that is most frequently injured is the supraspinatus. The lesion of the same occurs mainly due to the degeneration of the tissues caused by a deficit in the vascularization, by a direct trauma or by an overload suffered due to an exhaustive use for different workloads.

Gene or region studied

  • DEFB1
  • TNC
  • COL1A1
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