Gonadotropins, such as follitropin-alpha, follitropin-beta, menotropin, and urofollitropin are hormones that stimulate ovulation. These hormones are prescribed during clinical fertilization treatments.
In women, these hormones stimulate follicular growth and maturation, favoring the secretion of estrogens and other gonadal steroids.
Gonadotropin treatment is contraindicated when the patient has hypersensitivity to gonadotropins, hypothalamic or pituitary tumors; ovarian enlargement or cysts not due to polycystic ovarian disease, gynecological bleeding of unknown origin; ovarian, uterine, or breast carcinoma.
It should not be used when an effective response is not obtained in: primary ovarian failure, malformations of sexual organs or fibroid tumors of the uterus incompatible with pregnancy.
Cautions should be taken when prescribing gonadotropin treatment in cases of hepatic and renal failure, porphyria, or in a patient with family history of porphyria.
Treatment with gonadotropins may increase the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, especially in women with polycystic ovary, those who have suffered multiple or ectopic pregnancies or abortions, in women who suffer or have suffered from neoplasms of the reproductive system (benign or malignant) and thromboembolic disorders.
Before prescribing gonadotropins, the presence of hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency or hyperprolactinemia should be ruled out.
Monitor ovarian response using ultrasound and estradiol determination to early identify risk factors for ovarian hyperstimulation.
Pain, redness, bruising, swelling and/or irritation at the injection site. Headache; abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; ovarian cysts; mild or moderate ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
Gonadotrophins enhance the follicular response when prescribed concomitantly with other ovulation-stimulating medications (such as hCG or clomiphene citrate)
- Follitropin α: Gonal F®
- Follitropin β: Puregon®
- Menotropin: Menopur®
- Urofollitropin: Fostipur®