Hyperlipidemia

Hyperlipidemia is a disorder of fat metabolism characterized by an increase in one or more lipid fractions in the blood, the most frequent being triglycerides and cholesterol.

Hyperlipidemias can be of genetic origin, although this only accounts for 5% of the total (not analyzed here). The vast majority of cases are of complex origin and are usually associated with another pathology or the taking of certain drugs such as diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome or renal failure, among others.

The factors that can contribute to the appearance of hyperlipidemia are the following:

  • Unhealthy diet, rich in saturated fats, sugars and ultra-processed foods.
  • Obesity or overweight.
  • Lack of physical exercise.
  • Smoking.
  • Habitual alcohol consumption.
  • Age, being much more common after 40 years of age.

Symptoms

Most commonly, hyperlipidemias do not produce any symptoms and require a blood test for diagnosis. When triglyceride values are exceptionally high, they can produce episodes of abdominal pain due to pancreatitis, enlargement of the liver and spleen and fatty rashes on the skin called xanthema.

It is important to keep in mind that sustained high levels of triglycerides and/or cholesterol are the main risk factor for developing atherosclerosis and vascular accidents.

Prevention

Leading a healthy lifestyle is the main way to reduce the risk of hyperlipidemias. Preventive measures include:

  • Eating a diet low in salt and prioritizing the consumption of fruits and vegetables.
  • Limiting the amount of animal fat
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Practicing regular exercise
  • Avoiding tobacco and alcohol
  • Control stress
  • If there is a diagnosis of an associated disease such as diabetes, it is important to control it well.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

44 loci

Genes analyzed

ABCA1 ABCA9 ABCG5 ABO ANGPTL3 APOB APOC1 APOE ASGR1 BUD13 CDKN2B FES GCKR HAVCR1 HMGCR HNF1A HPR KAT5 LDLR LPA LPL MAFB MAMSTR MYLIP N4BP2L1 ONECUT1 PCCB PCSK9 PPP1R3B PSRC1 SCARB1 SLC22A1 SLC22A3 SMAD7 TDRD15 TM6SF2 TOP1 TRIB1 UBXN2B UGT2B15 ZNF652

Bibliography

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