Non-toxic multinodular goiter

Non-toxic nodular goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland due to the appearance of one or more nodules, without affecting thyroid hormone levels. It affects between 4% and 7% of the population.

The thyroid gland needs iodine to produce hormones. If there is not enough, the gland enlarges to try to compensate for this deficiency, so the development of non-toxic goiter is related to iodine deficiency in the diet (starting as a simple goiter). In addition, there are also several factors that contribute to its development, such as having a family history of goiter, exposure to ionizing radiation, regular intake of goitrogenic substances (cassava, soy, cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower, among others), or the consumption of certain medications.

Symptoms

In most cases, non-toxic multinodular goiter only produces the appearance of a palpable lump in the anterior region of the neck, which may be accompanied by difficulty swallowing, breathing, or recurrent hoarseness. The natural tendency is towards slow growth.

Prevention

One of the best ways to prevent the occurrence of goiter is to avoid iodine deficiency, for example, by using iodized salt to season food. Additionally, supplements containing this compound can be taken during times of higher requirement such as pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

22 loci

Genes analyzed

BMP2 FGF7 FOXA2 FOXE1 HES1 HMGA2 INSR ITPK1 MAF MBIP MICOS10 NFIA P2RY2 PRAG1 SALL1 SOX9 SYT13 TBX2 TG TGFB2 TTC28 VEGFA

Bibliography

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