Bone mineral density

Bone mineral density (BMD) refers to the amount of minerals, mainly calcium and phosphorus, present in the bones. An adequate BMD level is essential to maintain strong and resistant bones.

Bone mineral density is a critical factor for the health of bones and the musculoskeletal system in general. Throughout life, bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes a constant process of resorption and formation. During childhood and adolescence, bone mass undergoes a significant increase, reaching its peak in approximately the third decade of life. This period of bone mass accumulation is essential for establishing a solid foundation of bone density that contributes to lifelong bone strength.

However, as we age, especially after the age of 50 and particularly in women after menopause, the balance between bone formation and bone resorption tends to become unbalanced. Bone resorption, which is the loss of bone tissue, exceeds the rate of bone formation, resulting in a decrease in BMD. This situation results in marked bone fragility, increasing susceptibility to fractures, which represents a significant health problem and raises the risk of developing diseases such as osteoporosis.

There are several non-genetic risk factors that can negatively influence bone mineral density. These factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, a sedentary lifestyle, gender, a diet deficient in vitamins and calcium, aging, the use of certain medications such as corticosteroids, as well as medical conditions such as arthritis and osteoporosis.In addition to medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, chronic liver disease or celiac disease.

To prevent altered bone mineral density levels and reduce the risk of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, it is essential to maintain a healthy lifestyle. This involves avoiding tobacco and alcohol consumption, as well as giving priority to a diet that is rich in calcium and vitamin D.

Number of observed variants

13.5 million variants

Number of risk loci

76 loci

Genes analyzed

ADAMTS5 AKAP11 AQP1 ARHGAP25 ATP2B1 AXIN1 AXIN2 BLID BTBD16 C11orf58 C1orf105 C2orf16 CCND1 CD44 CDC5L COLEC10 CSF1 CSNK1G3 CTNNB1 CYP19A1 DGKD DGLUCY DLX5 DUSP5 ESR1 ETS2 F2 FGFRL1 FOXL1 FUBP3 FZD7 GALNT3 GRB10 GREM2 HIC1 INSC IQCH JAG1 LEKR1 MAFB MBL2 MEF2C MPPED2 NDUFS3 PKDCC PPP6R3 PSMD13 RSPO3 RUNX1 RUNX2 SLC25A13 SLC45A1 SLC8A1 SMAD9 SMARCD3 SOST SOX6 SP7 SPP1 SPTBN1 SREBF1 SRP19 STARD3NL TAX1BP1 TGOLN2 TMCO5A TMEM135 TMEM263 TNFRSF11A TSPAN12 WLS WNT16 WNT5B ZBTB40 ZC3H11B ZNF655

Bibliography

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