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ANCESTRY

Knowing our origins and tracing our evolutionary path, both as individuals and as a species, has always been fascinating.

As we know, our origins as a species date back to the African continent 200,000 years ago. Since then, there have been many paths taken by humans across the different continents of our planet up to the present day.

The sum of all the events and demographic processes is what configures the genetic composition of the current populations, making each one present particular characteristics.

Fortunately, nowadays, thanks to the advances in genetics, the ancestry DNA test developed by tellmeGen and the new improvements we have made and incorporated in our update, you will be able to discover who your ancestors are through the exhaustive study of your genetic composition and, thus, find out even more precisely what your origins are. At tellmeGen we are always at the forefront of genetics and medicine to offer you the best service and attention in our DNA test.

Análisis Ancestralidad Tellmegen

What do we do in our ancestry DNA test?

To determine your ancestry, at tellmeGen we use the fraction of the data obtained in your genotyping corresponding to autosomal DNA, which contains both your paternal and maternal genetic inheritance.

Subsequently, we submit this fraction of data to a strict quality control, thus allowing us to keep and use only those genetic markers of high quality for the analysis, avoiding possible erroneous deviations in our results, because quality and accuracy are fundamental values for tellmeGen.

Once identified and refined, we establish a comparison between this portion of your variation with that of thousands of reference individuals belonging to 39 ethnic groups distributed in 7 large geographic areas or superpopulations detailed below: Europe (13), Africa (6), West Asia (3), South and Central Asia (6), East Asia (7), Oceania (2), and the Americas (2).

To generate this reference sample, our bioinformatics specialists, physicians and geneticists have used public databases of human variability known worldwide and recognized by consensus by the scientific community, such as the 1000 Genomes Project and the Human Genome Diversity Project.

In this way, by studying certain patterns in your genetic variation and comparing them with our database, we are able to infer your ancestry with a high level of accuracy in our DNA testing for ethnicity.

Mapa Ancestralidad Tellmegen

How does the tellmeGen DNA testing for ethnicity work?

At tellmeGen we use Admixture software to infer your ancestry from a reference database generated by our experts, containing thousands of individuals of known ethnicity. This database has been generated while maintaining rigorous quality control, selecting individuals with a pure and representative ethnic origin for each ethnic group.

The similarity between the genetic composition of each of the individuals that make up the different ethnic groups that make up the database and your genetic composition will allow us to infer statistically, and in a very precise way, what portion of your DNA comes from each of these ethnic groups.

What can you expect from the new Ancestry update?

With the new update of our ancestry study, our experts subject each person’s genetic samples to a study under strict standards and exhaustive quality filters. Thanks to this, we can offer you the most accurate results and the maximum information about your ancestry from the study of your genetic material.

Thus, what you will see in your results report will be the allocation, in percentage, that we make of your genetic composition in the different ethnic groups considered, organized by geographical location. This information will be an accurate reflection of the ethnic origin of your ancestors and, by extension, of your own origin.

Ancestralidad británica tellmeGen

Discover your Maternal Lineage

NEW

A mitochondrial haplogroup is a set of variations found in human mitochondrial DNA. Haplogroups trace and describe the path taken by our maternal ancestors, from the human species’ origins in Africa to its worldwide expansion.

With tellmeGen’s haplogroup test integrated into our comprehensive genetic study, you can find out where your maternal ancestors came from and their geographic dispersion across the planet in different periods of history.

In the past, imagining where your ancestors lived and how they traveled around the world hundreds of thousands of years ago was science fiction. Now, it’s at your fingertips.

How did your ancestors travel from more than 150,000 years ago to the modern period? You can now find out and consult it on tellmeGen’s map of your maternal haplogroup migrations.

Do you share a haplogroup with famous people? There are many historical figures whose maternal haplogroups we know. In addition, many contemporary celebrities have also made their genetic test results public – find out if you share DNA with them!

ANCESTRY… WHAT IS NEXT?

The determination of your ethnicity is the beta version of the applications that we are developing to give you the maximum amount of information about your ancestry from your genetic material. We will continuously improve the existing databases to include new ethnic groups from unrepresented geographical areas, which will allow us to improve the extent and accuracy of the analysis of the origin of your ancestors.

NEXT VERSIONS OF MY ANCESTRY RESULTS WILL INCLUDE…

  • Analysis of Neanderthal ancestry: it is known that there was inbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals at different times in our history. We will estimate the amount of Neanderthal genetic material present at your genetic composition, derived from those inbreeding processes.
  • Y-chromosome analysis: the Y-chromosome is transmitted, exclusively, from fathers to their male children. By studying the genetic variation of the Y-chromosome, it is possible to infer paternal lineages. Paternal lineages, also called haplogroups, have a high geographic specificity and are therefore widely used in population genetics studies. Because of its special type of inheritance, similar to the transmission of surnames in many human cultures, it has been used in genealogical analyses.

The scientific team at tellmeGen continues to work to offer you the best possible information about your ancestry.

Our Reference of population

The tellmeGen database has reached thousands of individuals belonging to 39 ethnic groups spread over 7 major world geographic areas: Europe (13); Africa (6); West Asia (3); South and Central Asia (6); East Asia (7); Oceania (2); Americas (2).

EUROPE

We have always thought of the Finnish population being limited to only being found in Finland but now and days these ethnic group is not limited just to this Northern European country. The term Finnish not only represents Finland, but it also includes populations from Sweden, such as the Tornedalians; Norway, towns like Kyven or Forest; and also, Russia, towns like the Ingrian.

There are approximately 7 million of Finnish in existence today, not only counting the people that reside within the country, but also everyone that´s descendant from them. Most of the population is found in Finland and it´s neighboring countries such as Sweden, Norway, and Russia but due to the migration of people you can also find Finnish descendants in Countries like the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil and Argentina.

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Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent closest to Asia. There is no precise definition of the area it covers due to its different geographical, ethnic or social connotations. However, the region includes countries such as Russia, Poland, Estonia and Ukraine, the former being the largest and most populated and concentrating more than 15% of the total European population.

The region is characterized by Slavic, Greek, Byzantine and Ottoman cultural influences, which have contributed to its cultural heterogeneity. The region is made up of people belonging to dozens of ethnic groups such as Poles, Slovaks, Bosnians or Russians, among others, but with common cultural and/or genetic connections.

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The British Isles, which include Great Britain and Ireland, are located northeast of the European coast. The British are descendants of various ethnic groups that settled in the area over the past millennia.

The British form a diverse, multinational and multicultural society. Thanks to genetic analyses carried out on ancient samples, it has been shown that the prehistoric native populations underwent a series of demographic events that led to their almost total replacement. It is worth highlighting the replacement of the Mesolithic populations that took place around 6000 BC, with the arrival of Neolithic farming populations. In addition to their prehistoric roots, modern Britons are known to be descendants of several ethnic groups that settled in the islands at different times. These ethnic groups are the Celts, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings and Normans.

Mainly due to the important expansion during the 19th and 20th centuries, the British population is widely distributed throughout the world, with an important presence in the United States, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.

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The Orcadians are an indigenous people inhabiting the Orkney Islands, an archipelago located in the north of Scotland with about seventy islands, of which only twenty are inhabited. The population is 22,200, of whom about 17,000 live on the largest island. Historically, the Orcadians are descendants of the Picts, Norse and Scots, and speak their own dialect derived from Scots and belonging to the Indo-European languages. The Vikings made Orkney their headquarters during their pirate expeditions.br>
The Orcadians base their economy on agriculture and marine resources. As for their religion, they practice Presbyterianism. They have a rich heritage of folklore.

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Scandinavia is a geographical and cultural region of northern Europe that includes Denmark, Sweden and Norway. The area is home to about 21 million people and its inhabitants speak the Nordic languages, although there are indigenous Saami-speaking minorities of Uralic origin.

Scandinavia has one of the world's most prosperous economies and is oriented towards international trade and exports. The region has undergone important migratory processes, with a strong emigration at the end of the First World War and an important arrival of immigrants after the Second World War, mainly from Finland, Iraq, Somalia, Germany and Syria.

The Scandinavian countries share much of their culture. They are strongly linked to the history of the Vikings, Germanic warriors from Scandinavia who were characterized by being great navigators, famous for their plundering and for leaving an important mark on the European history.

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Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. Although the calculation of the number of Germans depends on the criteria applied, it is estimated that the population would be around 150 million people, of which 62.5 million reside in Germany, which is 42% of the total population. However, the Germanic people are widely distributed throughout the world. Most importantly, the United States is home to more than 60 million Germans, a third of the German diaspora. Other important locations are Brazil, Canada, Argentina, South Africa and France.

Its language is German, the second most spoken Germanic language after English. It belongs to the Indo-European language family. In terms of religion, currently one third of the population is Protestant, another third is Roman Catholic and the remaining third is non-religious. The Germanic society has had great contributions to the society in multiple fields like science, philosophy or literature.

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The French people are an ethnic group belonging to the Group or Romance-speaking populations originating in present-day France. Historically, the French people have predominantly Gallic or Celtic, Latin and Germanic origins, but also with influences from the Basque, Iberian, Italic or Greek peoples, among others. France has long been a mosaic of local customs and regional differences that is reflected in the language. Although most of them speak French, a language belonging to the family of Indo-European languages, others such as occitano, Catalan, Corsican, Basque or Alsatian are spoken in their respective regions.

The French population is estimated at around 95 million people. Of these, some 67 million reside in France, but can also be found widely distributed in other countries such as the United States, Algeria, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Germany or Morocco, among many others. Most of the French people belong to the Catholic Church, although Protestant, Jewish or Muslim representatives can also be found, as well as atheists or agnostics.

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The term French Basque refers to the group of people originating in northern Spain and southwest of France, located on both sides of the western Pyrenees. The origin of the Basque has given rise to many theories, some of which trace their origins to the first paleolithic settlers of Europe. In this sense, they have been related to other European and Mediterranean populations such as the Iberians, Picts, Irish, Welsh, Berbers or Etruscans.

The Basques are characterized by the Basque language that is not related to any of the Indo-European languages. Thanks to numerous genetic studies, it is thought that the Basques are a remnant of the first inhabitants of Western Europe; specifically, those of the Franco-Cantabrian region, which mixed with the first groups of Neolithic farmers arriving in the Iberian Peninsula.

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It refers to the Ashkenazi Jews descendants of the Jews who settled in Central and Eastern Europe during medieval times, mainly in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine and Romania, among others. They developed particular customs and laws that differentiate them from other Jewish peoples, such as their own language, Yiddish that combine terms from German dialects along with some of Slavic or Hebrew origin.

The Ashkenazi population is estimated at 11.2 million people and some researchers indicate that they account for 70% of the world's Jewish population. They have a wide diaspora, being more importantly found in the United States (5-6 million people) and Israel (2.8 million), but also in Russia, Argentina, United Kingdom, Canada, etc.

Its history is marked by the Nazi Holocaust during World War II, in which two-thirds of the Ashkenazi Jews were killed, also causing mass migration to other regions.

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The Iberian population originated in the Iberian Peninsula, in the southwest of Europe. This includes the countries of Andorra, Portugal and Spain. Although the term Iberian has been used to identify all the inhabitants of the peninsula, there is another more restricted ethnic sense that identifies them as the ethical group that occupied the eastern and southern Iberian Peninsula. These people, defined by Greeks and Romans, were influenced by other Mediterranean towns such as the Phoenicians or the Greek mimes.

It is known that the first settlers arrived in the Iberian Peninsula more than 40,000 years ago from southern France. The Iberian Peninsula has been a crossroads for many ethnic groups in the Mediterranean, Central and Eastern Europe throughout history. This, today, is reflected in the great cultural diversity of their current populations. In addition, due to the role played by Spain and Portugal, a large proportion of inhabitants of from South America are descendants of the Iberian population. This occur during the late fifteenth century which was at the time of the discoveries and subsequent colonization of the Americas.

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The Italian population originally comes from the Italia peninsula, situated in the south of Europe occupying a vast position in the center of the Mediterranean.

The Italian population is estimated to have about 55 million inhabitants. Between the late nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries, there was a massive movement of Italians to different areas around the world. This was known as the ¨Italian diaspora¨. It is estimated that today more 80 million people around the world have a direct or partial Italian ancestry.

Italy is the cradle of the Roman Empire, it dominated all of Western Europe and the Mediterranean area since its beginning in the 8th century B.C. until its disappearance in the 5th century. This period left an indelible footprint in the image of Western civilization that is known today. At the genetic level, current Italians have genetic differences between their populations from the north and the south. The southern Italians are closer to the Mediterranean populations like the Greeks, while the northern Italians are closer to the Iberians and French of the south today.

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Sardinian was a term used to describe the inhabitants of the Italian island of Sardinia in the Western Mediterranean. Researchers think that the first inhabitants of Sardinia arrived from the Iberian Peninsula and the Italian Peninsula. However, as it is with other isolated populations, current Sardines differ significantly from other European populations. Different investigations have shown how the Sardinian population show a clear genetic differentiation with respect to the rest of the populations in their geographical environment since its presents genetic variants are considered rare at high frequencies.

Recent studies on the origin of the Sardinian population based on their genetic makeup have shown that this ethnic group was closest to the first Neolithic populations for more than 10,000 years ago, this is where the near east populated Europe displacing the Paleolithic populations proceeded from.

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The Balkan peninsula, delimited to the north by the Balkan Mountains, is one of the three great peninsulas of southern Europe. The area, besides being surrounded by seas, has several rivers, such as the Danube, the Var or the Struma, which facilitate communication between the different regions.

The area comprises several countries such as Greece, Bulgaria, Croatia, Slovenia, Albania and part of Turkey, with a population of almost 53 million inhabitants. A multitude of different languages are spoken in the area, predominantly the Slavic language group (Bulgarian, Slovenian or Macedonian), Greek, and a group of Neo-Latin languages (such as Romanian or Moldavian). In addition, the heterogeneity of the area is also evident in the different cultures of its inhabitants.

The majority ethnic group in the area are the Greeks or Hellenes, with a population of more than 15 million people. They are native to Greece, Cyprus and some other Balkan regions, although, as a result of their enormous historical expansion, they constitute a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established all over the world. In ancient times, the Greeks were organized in city-states where the concept of democracy originated. Their main language is the Greek language, spoken since the time of Ancient Greece. It is an Indo-European language that constitutes a branch in itself and is closely related to Armenian and Indo-Iranian languages. This ethnic group is credited with very notable contributions to the field of universal culture, such as the first alphabet or important foundations in the field of philosophy.

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AFRICA

The Maghreb is a region located in North Africa that includes the westernmost part of the Arab world. The region includes Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Western Sahara and Tunisia, as well as the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. It has a population of more than 87 million people.

The original inhabitants of the Maghreb were the Imazighen, generally called Berbers. With the arrival of the Arabs in the 7th century, the population of the Maghreb converted to Islam and began a long process of linguistic and cultural Arabization. The region has hosted several migratory waves, such as the arrival of the Andalusians, the Ottoman Empire or the French colonization, which have left their mark on the different cultures.

Today, most of the inhabitants of the Maghreb speak Maghrebi Arabic, although there is also a percentage of inhabitants who speak the Berber languages, French or Spanish.

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Senegal and Gambia are the two West African countries located furthest West on the continent. The former, with more than 15 million inhabitants, is named after the Senegal River that marks its northern border. The second, with a much smaller area and just over 2 million inhabitants, is completely surrounded by Senegal and situated on the banks of the Gambia River.

Both countries share a past strongly associated with the slave market, first by the Portuguese and later by the British Empire. In addition, much of their customs and culture are also shared. Throughout the region, the majority religion is Islam. They are also known for their excellent music and typical dances.

In the area, there are a number of endemic ethnic groups, the Mandinka being the most numerous, representing more than 30% of the population of both countries. Their population is over 13 million and their main language is the Manninka, with numerous dialects. They are predominantly Muslim, but very few dress in the Arab style and few women wear veils. Most of them are now farmers or fishermen and are highly esteemed jalis or bards, who are traditional storytellers who keep the history of the people alive.

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Sierra Leone and Liberia are two West African countries founded to repatriate enslaved and subsequently freed people to the African continent in the 19th century. During this period, freed slaves founded Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone. Due to the British influence in both countries, the official and most widely spoken language is English.

This region, with more than 10 million inhabitants, is one of the least developed in the world due to several social problems, although it has important mineral and fishing resources and an agriculture to be promoted. Nearly two thirds of its inhabitants live from agriculture and industry is limited to the processing of raw materials. The culture of both countries has a mixture of African and English elements.

There are several ethnic groups in the region, the Mandé people being the most numerous. They represent about 30% of the total population. Their main activities are cattle raising and hunting, which they carry out in a little mechanized way. Their main language is Mendé and they are characterized by an interesting fact: their men are initiated early in the Poro society in which they are prepared to gain wisdom, responsibility and power for several years. During this period, members converse with each other using a secret language and passwords that only other members know.

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The countries Nigeria and Ghana and the are located in West Africa, specifically in the Gulf of Guinea. The territory has historically been the subject of constant European expeditions, mainly by the Portuguese, British and Dutch for the trade of the large amount of gold in the area, which is why it is also known as the Gold Coast.

The region is home to more than 230 million people, making it one of the most populated areas on the African continent. Most of them belong to Islam, although the percentage of Protestants and Christians is also relevant. In this region there are more than 250 different ethnic groups, the Yoruba people being the most important.

The Yoruba people have about 58 million inhabitants and constitute 30% of Nigeria's population. Most of them speak the Yoruba language and are mainly Muslim or Christian, although they maintain many tenets of the traditional faith of their ancestors. They are also one of the most urbanized peoples in Africa, living in well-organized urban centers.

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Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries, the former with 46 million inhabitants and the latter with 1.2 million. Both share Lake Victoria, the second largest freshwater lake in the world and an important source of wealth for the inhabitants of the area. The region is known for its rich biodiversity.

Due to its climate and natural resources, agriculture is the most important sector in the region with coffee as the main product. The culture in Kenya and Uganda is very diverse because of the coexistence of a multitude of ethnic groups, such as the Luyia and Luo.

The Luyia people, numbering more than 10 million people, account for 14% of the region's inhabitants and are the largest ethnic group in Kenya. Their language is Luhya, derived from the Bantu languages. Their culture includes polygamy, although it is less and less practiced.

The Luo represent more than 10% of the population of the area, with more than 7 million people, and they speak the Luo language as well as Swahili and English. As a curiosity, in this ethnic group the names traditionally given to children reflected aspects related to pregnancy or childbirth, such as the season of the year or the time of birth.

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The term Pygmy is used to designate groups of people living in Central Africa, especially in the African equatorial forests, who are characterized by their short stature. Together with the Bushmen or San, they are considered the oldest inhabitants of Africa. The latter are mostly located in the South of the continent.

The Pygmies hunt in a very traditional way, with nets, arrows and javelins, and gather fruits, tubers and honey. They speak different languages, although they share some words, which indicates that in the past they may have had a common language. The inbreeding practiced among them and their isolation in forests has caused a different evolution from the rest of the African peoples. For this reason, there are clear elements common to all of them: their short stature and their short life expectancy of between 15 and 24 years.

The Bushmen or San are also traditionally hunter-gatherers and speak Khoisan languages, characterized by the incorporation of clicking sounds. They are composed of several villages and have a population of about 105,000 people. Their society has been extensively studied and in it, women play an important role, with an elevated status from which they can make important decisions.

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WEST ASIA

The Arabian Peninsula and Egypt are located at the confluence of Africa and Asia. Because of their geographical proximity, both regions share important cultural and social aspects, with a common majority language, Arabic.

Egypt borders the Mediterranean to the North and the Red Sea to the East. It is mainly a desert region, but is crossed by the Nile River, which has provided the country with very fertile, densely populated areas and has marked the rich history of the region. Egypt was the cradle of the ancient Egyptian civilization and, together with the Mesopotamian civilization, was the origin of today's Western culture, decisively influencing the history of mankind. Different ethnic groups coexist in the country, with the Egyptians being the majority group with more than 100 million inhabitants, followed by the Bedouins, Gypsies and Nubians, with more than 1 million people each.

The Arabian Peninsula and the Mediterranean Levant include countries such as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Yemen, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, among others. It is generally a largely desert area, although the presence of monsoons in the South and East allow for agricultural activities. Arab identity should not be confused with religious affiliation, although most Arabs today are Muslims, with small Christian minorities.

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Turkey, Iran and the Caucasus are located in Western Asia and include more than 183 million people.

The Caucasus, named after a mountain range, includes Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia. The people currently residing in this area speak about 100 different languages and dialects, most of which belong to the Caucasian language family. It is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the world where some groups, such as the Adyghe, have been present for thousands of years and others, such as the Russians, arrived a few centuries ago. It is an ecologically rich area with a wealth of mineral and energy resources. It has a rich folkloric tradition with many connections to ancient Indian, Scandinavian and Greek cultures.

The majority ethnic group in Turkey is the Turkic people, although their presence is not limited to this country. This area, due to its strategic position, has been a historical crossroads between different cultures and civilizations, which is reflected in its heterogeneous culture.

Iran, whose official language is Persian, is home to the Iranian peoples, a group of ethnic groups that share the Iranian languages and originate from the Iranian plateau. Although the majority of Iranian peoples live in Iran, they are widely distributed with significant presence also in other regions of East and West Asia, with an estimated total population of about 210 million people.

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The name Bedouin is attributed to the nomadic Arab population that inhabits the deserts of the Near East, the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. Their origin is established in the Arabian Peninsula, although during the Arab conquests of the 7th century they expanded widely throughout the rest of the regions. It is estimated that the Bedouin population amounts to more than 25 million people settled mainly in Sudan, where they are the majority ethnic group, followed by Algeria, Saudi Arabia and Iraq, among other countries.

Today's Bedouins are generally organized into tribes. Their main language is Bedawi or Bedauye, a language of Afro-Asiatic origin widely spoken in the vicinity of the Red Sea. Their economy is centered on cattle raising and they organize their life around this activity. They are constantly on the move in search of water and pasture. As for their religion, most of them are Sunni Muslims.

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CENTRAL & SOUTH ASIA

Central Asia consists of five countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It includes more than 71 million people, although it is one of the least densely populated regions. Central Asia has historically been characterized by its nomadic peoples and its location on the Silk Road. The aridity of the area and its remoteness from the sea have made it difficult to practice agriculture and trade, the main reason for the nomadic nature of its peoples.

During the Middle Ages, the region was predominantly composed of Iranian peoples, with current representation in the area through the Pashtuns, Pamiris or Tajiks. After the expansion of the Turkic peoples, it also became the homeland of the Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and Uyghurs and, as a result, this region is also called Turkestan.

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Pakistan and Afghanistan are located in South Asia. They have more than 200 million and 36 million inhabitants respectively.

The region has been, due to its geographical location, home to different cultures, as well as the object of invasions and settlements by Hindus, Persians, Greeks or Muslims, among others. Pakistan is a country with a great ethnic diversity inhabited by various peoples such as Pashtuns, Sindhis, Punjabis or Baloch, with Urdu and English as official languages. Afghanistan is also a multilingual and multiethnic country inhabited by different peoples such as the Pashtuns, who make up 42% of the population, Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks and Baloch, with Dari and Pashto as official languages.

The predominant religion is Islam, which is an important part of their culture and lifestyle.

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Gujarati are an ethnic group that traditionally inhabits the state of Gujarat, which is located in southwestern India, bordering Pakistan to the north with the state of Rajasthan, to the east by Madhya Pradesh state, to the southeast by Maharashtra state and to the west by the Arabian Sea. The Gujaratis speak the Gujarati language which is one of the Indo-Indian languages spoken in the Indian subcontinent.

The state of Gujarat has more than 60 million inhabitants, which makes it the ninth most populous state in India. Since becoming a state on May 1, 1960, Gujarat is one of India's most economically growing areas. Two of India's leading independence leaders were born in this state: Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

In addition, the Gujarati are a village with a great seafaring tradition and a history of migrations to different territories, mainly on the shores of the Arabian Sea with which it shares the same mercantile culture. Gujaratis are considered to represent around 30% of migrations from Indian populations. Currently the main Gujaratis colonies by number of inhabitants are in Pakistan, United Kingdom, United States, Canada as well as several countries of East and South Africa.

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The Punjabis are an ethnolinguistic group associated with the Punjabi region, located in northern India and Pakistan. They are more than 145 million inhabitants with an important diaspora, especially in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.

Traditionally, the linguistic, geographical and cultural fusion created among the inhabitants of the state of Punjab an identity independent of their historical or religious origin. Its culture is one of the oldest in the world, although it is marked by the complexity of Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic influences, with special relevance in poetry, philosophy, spirituality and cuisine.

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Bengalis are one of the Indo-Aryan ethnic groups native to the Bengal region of South Asia, which is divided between Bangladesh and India. They make up 98% of the population of Bangladesh and their language is Bengali, a language of the Indo-European language family.

The Bengali population is estimated at 260 million people, of which about 163 million live in Bangladesh, and can also be found in other regions such as India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and Qatar. The Bengalis represent, after the Han Chinese and Arabs, the third largest human ethnic group in terms of population.

Within the population, four different religious subgroups can be found: Muslims, who represent the majority, Hindus, Christians and Buddhists. In addition, like all major cultural groups in history, Bengalis have exerted a great influence in various fields, especially in arts and architecture, language, folklore, politics or technology.

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The Telugu people are an ethnic group native to the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent, south of the Narmada and Mahanadi rivers. This region basically consists of the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil, Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. The population of these regions amounts to more than 230 million inhabitants, about 20% of the country's population. They are also present in Sri Lanka, where they make up about 17% of the population.

The Telugu people speak the Telugu language, which belongs to the Dravidian languages, spoken by more than 200 million people in the Indian subcontinent. In addition to their language, the Dravidian peoples are distinguished from the other inhabitants of India by their physique, as they are generally short in stature and have dark brown skin.

The Sinhalese predominate in Sri Lanka (75% of its population), an ethnic group native to the island, characterized by speaking Sinhalese and are the result of the interbreeding of the natives with the Indo-Europeans who dominated the country. Sinhalese society is characterized by being mainly Buddhist and by the important role of women in society with an active presence in different areas.

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EAST ASIA

The Japanese people are the native ethnic group of the Japanese archipelago, consisting of 6852 islands. The Japanese represent almost the entire population of Japan, which currently numbers about 130 million inhabitants and shares a common language, Japanese. In addition, it is estimated that about 4 million Japanese or their descendants live outside Japan, mainly concentrated in Brazil and the United States.

The oldest archaeological evidence from the Japanese archipelago shows the presence of Paleolithic hunter-gatherer groups dating back more than 39,000 years, when there was still a land connection with the Asian continent. Ethnographically, there are three distinct groups that encompass the term Japanese: the Yamato, the Ainu and the Ryukyuan. Yamato people are the largest group and are generally identified in a general way with the Japanese ethnic group.

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The Korean people is one of the largest in East Asia, with a population of more than 80 million, although most of its representatives live on the Korean Peninsula and share Korean as their main language. It is one of the most homogeneous populations in the world, although culturally there are differences between North and South Koreans, mainly due to political distinctions that led to the separation of the Peninsula in 1945.

Modern Koreans are believed to be descendants of Manchurian, Mongolian and southern Siberian populations who settled in northern Korea during the Bronze Age. An estimated 7.5 million Koreans reside outside the Korean Peninsula, predominantly in the United States, China and Japan.

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This group includes the Mongolian people and the Oroqen, Xibo, Hezhen and Daur ethnic groups, typically located in northern China and all of them recognized as minority ethnic groups by the Chinese government.

The Mongols, the majority ethnic group of this group, are located in northern China, the Mongolia region and southern Russia, with more than 10 million representatives. Their main language is Mongolian and most of them practice Tibetan Buddhism.

Some ethnic groups in northern China are closely related to the Mongolian people and are therefore included in this group. The Oroqen are one of the oldest ethnic groups inhabiting today's China, with approximately 7,000 representatives located in the province of Inner Mongolia. The Xibe are composed of about 188,000 people, inhabit mainly the Uyghur region of Xinjiang and have their own language. The Hezhen are mainly located in the Siberian area and Heilongjiang province and are composed of about 18,000 people. Finally, the Daur mainly inhabit Inner Mongolia and the provinces of Heilongjiang and Xinjiang with a population of about 130,000 people.

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This category includes the Chinese Dai ethnic group and those belonging to the Indochina peninsula, which is located in southern China and eastern India and includes Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, Thailand and Malaysia.

The Dai people are one of the 56 officially recognized ethnic groups in China. Its population, which currently numbers more than 8 million inhabitants, is located in the extreme southwest of the country, specifically in the province of Yunnan. From an anthropological point of view, we cannot consider the Dai people as a homogeneous group since they actually encompass a set of cultural groups with common characteristics. They speak dialects of the Sino-Tibetan language family, widely used in Southeast Asia. Due to their location, the Dai people are closely related to other Indochinese populations. These include the Vietnamese population, represented by about 90 million people and native to Vietnam and southern China; the Khmer people, who are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia with about 15 million people; and the Thai population, located mostly in Thailand with a population of more than 50 million people.

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The Han people refer to the East Asian ethnic group originating in China. It is the largest ethnic group in the world with about 1.2 billion people, representing 92% of China's population and about 18% of the world's population.

The origin of the Han people is found in the confederation of tribes, known as Huaxia, that inhabited along the Yellow River in the Neolithic era. Two thousand years ago, the Han culture expanded southward from this area, absorbing the different ethnic groups in its path. The beginning of this period of expansion coincides with the historical period of the Han dynasty, which was one of the first great epochs in the history of China and made it the main regional power in East Asia. At the genetic level, there is some stratification between the northern and southern Han populations, as well as being considered a relatively homogeneous population.

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The Siberian Eskimo aboriginal people mainly inhabit the Chukchi Peninsula in Siberia, although they can also be found in Alaska, especially on St. Lawrence Island, the Yukon Delta or the Kuskokwim River. The Siberian Eskimo population numbers about 21,000 people and their most widely spoken language is Yupik, which is their native language, although they also speak English and Russian.

Traditionally, the families focus on fishing, especially for salmon and seals, and it is common to meet during the summer in camps for this purpose. The traditional clothing of this group consists of fur garments that they make themselves, with hoods to protect them from the ice, sleeves and pockets. In addition, their typical clothing includes seal gut raincoats, goggles to protect the eyes and snowshoes.

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Of Siberia's 40 million inhabitants, 10% are indigenous. Although some indigenous people, such as the Yakut, have their own republics, many others are in danger of extinction, threatened by the environmental degradation of the region.

The Yakut, included in this group, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia. They live in the Sakha Republic and number just over 450,000 individuals. Their main activity is hunting, fishing and horse breeding and, for the most part, they are Orthodox Christians.

The Even and the Ulchi are other indigenous communities of the region formed by 19,000 and 3,000 people, respectively, dedicated especially to reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing. In all of them it is common to use sleds to move through the snow.

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OCEANIA

The Papuan people are the native ethnic group and Papua New Guinea. The country of Papua New Guinea comprises the eastern half of the island of New Guinea, as well as numerous islands that surround it, located in the region known as Melanesia which is in turn part of Oceania.

Despite having only 7 million inhabitants, Papua New Guinea is considered to be one of the countries with the greatest cultural diversity in the world, with more than 1,000 distinct cultural groups highlighting its linguistic richness as more than 800 languages have been counted. Papua New Guinea has been populated since a very remote time, the oldest archaeological remains found in the area date back 60,000 years. Although very little is known about these early settlers of Papua New Guinea it is believed to have come from Southeast Asia. It is known that the descendants of the first settlers have historically occupied the mountainous areas of the country while in coastal areas they are descended from ancient later migrations, originating from Malaysia.

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Melanesians are the indigenous inhabitants of the region of Melanesia, a sub-region of Oceania stretching from New Guinea in the West to Tonga in the East and including Fiji, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea.

People in this region have a distinctive ancestry. Studies indicate that the first settlers in the region arrived during the migration of Africans to Asia between 50 000 and 100 000 years ago. Much later, between 4000 and 3000 BC, an influx of Austronesian migrants arrived in Melanesia. According to historians, there was a long period of interaction between the latter and the pre-existing inhabitants, resulting in numerous complex genetic, linguistic and cultural mixtures.

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AMERICA

The indigenous people of South and Central America, also called aborigines or American Indians, are the original inhabitants of this geographic area. In many cases, their descendants maintain their culture and customs. Their origin is not entirely clear, although it is believed that they are descendants of groups of hunters who migrated to America through the Bering Strait during the last Würm glaciation.

Native American cultures vary enormously due to their widespread distribution throughout the continent, although they share a predilection for music and for having agriculture and livestock as their main economic engines.

This category includes the Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec and Mixe ethnic groups (Mexico), the Quechua (Peru and Bolivia), Karitiana and Surui (Brazil), Chane (Argentina) and Piapoco (Colombia and Venezuela).

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This category includes the Pima or Akimel O'odham people. This is an indigenous group located in Arizona (United States) and in the Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuahua, whose name refers to their origin as "people of the river". The current Pima people have a few hundred inhabitants whose main occupation is cattle ranching.

According to ethnolinguistic research, the Pima people originated in western Canada, from where they descended across California to their current location, where they had to fight with the Seri ethnic group in order to establish themselves. At the genetic level, it has been verified that the members of the Pima ethnic group are descendants of the first people who arrived in the American continent from East Asia more than 15,000 years ago.

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