Height is defined as a person’s height, measured from head to foot.
The height of a person is a complex character conditioned by multiple factors. It is estimated that more than 80% of the variation in a population can be attributed to genetic factors. Other factors are also involved, such as sex, population, parental height, and environmental factors, among which nutrition is of great importance.
Height, like many other biological variables, acts as a continuous variable, and its values show a “normal” distribution that can be represented as a Gaussian bell. Statistically, normal heights are those between ± 2 standard deviations (SD) for age, sex, and ethnicity. Tall sizes are those between + 2 SD and short sizes are considered to be those below 2 SD.
Two groups are distinguished: normal short stature, which includes children with familial short stature, with constitutional delay in growth and development or with delayed puberty; and short stature secondary to a pathological cause. A height below -2 SD does not necessarily imply that it is pathological.
Factors that may affect height:
Family history: parental heights, age of menarche in the mother, age of onset of shaving or voice change in the father, existence of short or tall stature in grandparents and uncles, as well as delayed or early puberty.
Personal background: pregnancy, gestational age, whether the birth was normal or presented perinatal asphyxia, neonatal weight, and height to rule out intrauterine growth retardation.
GENE OR REGION STUDIED