Cisplatin is used in chemotherapy to treat different types of cancer: testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer, breast, cervical, and other epithelial carcinomas. In addition, cisplatin is used for the treatment of different lymphomas, neuroblastomas, sarcomas, multiple myeloma, melanoma and mesothelioma.
Cisplatin is a toxic platinum-based antineoplastic compound. The mechanism by cisplatin kills cells is mediated by the inhibition of DNA synthesis by producing crosslinks within and between DNA strands. Also, RNA and protein synthesis are inhibited but in a less extent.
Cisplatin confers immunosuppressant, radiosensitizing and antibacterial properties as well.
Hypersensibility to cisplatin or other platinum-based compounds.
Cisplatin should be avoided in patients with renal failure, dehydration, myelosuppression, hearing impairment or neuropathy caused by cisplatin.
As has been reported in previous paragraphs, cisplatin is a really toxic antineoplastic agent, for this reason a great variety of side effects can appear during the treatment:
- Infections, sepsis, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and dose-dependent anemia.
- Peripheral neuropathy, hearing loss, vertigo
- Cardiac arrhythmias
- Pneumonia and respiratory failure
- Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
- Hepatic failure