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Triptans (Efficacy)

Triptans are a group of drugs used in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. They are also useful in other types of headaches, but they are not used as preventive drugs to avoid migraine episodes.

ACTION MECHANISM

Triptans' mechanism of action is based on their agonist properties over type 1B and 1D serotonin receptors, producing the main effect of vasoconstriction of intracranial arteries, including the middle cerebral artery, middle meningeal artery and basilar artery, thus inhibiting the headache that occurs in migraine (which is produced by vasodilation).

CONTRAINDICATIONS

-Triptans are contraindicated if the patient is hypersensitive to it.

-Triptans are contraindicated if taken together with ergotamine or derivatives (including methysergide) or other serotonin 5HT1B/1D receptor agonists.

-Triptans are contraindicated during concomitant treatment with MAOIs or within 2 weeks after the end of treatment.

-Triptans are contraindicated in patients with a history of myocardial infarction, stroke or transient ischemic attack.

-Triptans are contraindicated in patients with cardiac ischemia, angina pectoris, silent ischemia, Prinzmetal's angina, peripheral vascular disease.

-Triptans are contraindicated in patients with moderate-severe arterial hypertension or uncontrolled mild hypertension; acute liver failure, acute kidney failure.

SIDE EFFECTS

Dizziness, drowsiness, paresthesia, headache, hypoesthesia, decreased mental acuity, tremor, palpitations, tachycardia, flushing, pharyngeal discomfort, dyspnea, nausea, dry mouth, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, abdominal or chest pain, myalgia, fatigue.

(Depending on the type of triptane, side effects may vary).

BRAND NAMES

-Rizatriptan: Maxalt®

-Naratriptan: Amerge®, Naramig®

-Zolmitriptan: Zomig®

-Sumatriptan: Imigran®,

-Almotriptan: Axert®

-Eletriptan: Relpax®, Relert®

-Frovatriptan: Forvey®, Perlic®

Gene or region studied

  • DRD2
  • OCT1
  • GNB3
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